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Tuesday, 16 February 2016

What's new for 'birdRS' in PubMed. February Week 2, 2016

birdRS - Latest News

This message contains My NCBI what's new results from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PubMed Results

1. Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 12;7:10697. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10697. 

Land use imperils plant and animal community stability through changes in asynchrony rather than diversity. 
Blüthgen N(1), Simons NK(2), Jung K(3), Prati D(4), Renner SC(5,)(6), Boch S(4), Fischer M(4,)(7), Hölzel N(8), Klaus VH(8), Kleinebecker T(8), Tschapka M(3), Weisser WW(2), Gossner MM(2). Author information: (1)Department of Biology, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstrasse 3, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. (2)Terrestrial Ecology Research Group, Department for Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Center for Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising, Germany. (3)Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Genomics, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm, Germany. (4)Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH 3013 Bern, Switzerland. (5)Institute of Zoology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria. (6)Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute at the National Zoological Park, Front Royal 22630, Virginia, USA. (7)Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), D-60325 Frankfurt, Germany. (8)Institute of Landscape Ecology, University of Münster, Heisenbergstrasse 2, D-48149 Münster, Germany. 

Human land use may detrimentally affect biodiversity, yet long-term stability of species communities is vital for maintaining ecosystem functioning. Community stability can be achieved by higher species diversity (portfolio effect), higher asynchrony across species (insurance hypothesis) and higher abundance of populations. However, the relative importance of these stabilizing pathways and whether they interact with land use in real-world ecosystems is unknown. We monitored inter-annual fluctuations of 2,671 plant, arthropod, bird and bat species in 300 sites from three regions. Arthropods show 2.0-fold and birds 3.7-fold higher community fluctuations in grasslands than in forests, suggesting a negative impact of forest conversion. Land-use intensity in forests has a negative net impact on stability of bats and in grasslands on birds. Our findings demonstrate that asynchrony across species-much more than species diversity alone-is the main driver of variation in stability across sites and requires more attention in sustainable management. PMID: 26869180 [PubMed - in process] 

2. Trop Life Sci Res. 2015 Dec;26(2):85-103. 

Bird Diversity and Structure in Different Land-use Types in Lowland South-Central Mindanao, Philippines. 
Tanalgo KC(1), Pineda JA(2), Agravante ME(2), Amerol ZM(2). Author information: (1)Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences. (2)Department of Secondary Education, College of Education, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, North Cotabato, 9407, Philippines. 

Birds are crucial to maintaining the balance of many ecosystems by providing various ecological services. The diversity of birds and their feeding guilds in different land-use types were investigated in south-central Mindanao to elucidate the effect of disturbance and habitat modification on bird communities. Point count method was employed to identify birds in three habitat types: i) agroforests; ii) ricefields; iii) roads and heavily disturbed areas. A total of 1114 bird sightings were recorded that included 33 species of 24 families; of these, 3 were Philippine endemics, and 5 were migrant species. Among all of the habitat types, the highest species diversity was found in agroforests (1/D = 16.148), and the lowest was recorded from roads and heavily disturbed habitats. The species composition of agroforests was more similar to ricefields than to areas with high levels of disturbance, such as roads. The characteristic of the vegetation and the availability of food resources may be vital to the diversity of birds in every habitat as evidenced by the high species richness of frugivores and insectivores in agroforests and ricefields, respectively, where food source is largely available. The observation of Streptopelia tranquebarica was a new record for Mindanao, and it was particularly sighted in ricefields. Therefore, this study indicates that land-use change and modification may alter bird diversity structure, and the maintenance of the vegetation in land-use types as food and resource, and as habitat is essential to the conservation of the native and ecologically-important bird species in south-central Mindanao. Publisher: Abstract available from the publisher. PMID: 26868712 [PubMed] 

3. Ecol Evol. 2016 Jan 11;6(3):716-26. doi: 10.1002/ece3.1894. eCollection 2016. 

Local parasite lineage sharing in temperate grassland birds provides clues about potential origins of Galapagos avian Plasmodium. 
Levin II(1), Colborn RE(2), Kim D(3), Perlut NG(4), Renfrew RB(5), Parker PG(1). Author information: (1)Department of BiologyUniversity of Missouri - St. LouisOne University Blvd.St. LouisMissouri63121; Whitney R. Harris World Ecology CenterUniversity of Missouri - St. LouisOne University Blvd.St. LouisMissouri63121; Saint Louis ZooWildCare InstituteOne Government Dr.St. LouisMissouri63110. (2)Department of Biology University of Missouri - St. Louis One University Blvd. St. Louis Missouri 63121. (3)Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust 6611 W. Whooping Crane Dr. Wood River Nebraska 68883. (4)Department of Environmental Studies University of New England 11 Hills Beach Road Biddeford Maine 04005. (5)Vermont Center for Ecostudies PO Box 420 Norwich Vermont 05055. 

Oceanic archipelagos are vulnerable to natural introduction of parasites via migratory birds. Our aim was to characterize the geographic origins of two Plasmodium parasite lineages detected in the Galapagos Islands and in North American breeding bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) that regularly stop in Galapagos during migration to their South American overwintering sites. We used samples from a grassland breeding bird assemblage in Nebraska, United States, and parasite DNA sequences from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, to compare to global data in a DNA sequence registry. Homologous DNA sequences from parasites detected in bobolinks and more sedentary birds (e.g., brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater, and other co-occurring bird species resident on the North American breeding grounds) were compared to those recovered in previous studies from global sites. One parasite lineage that matched between Galapagos birds and the migratory bobolink, Plasmodium lineage B, was the most common lineage detected in the global MalAvi database, matching 49 sequences from unique host/site combinations, 41 of which were of South American origin. We did not detect lineage B in brown-headed cowbirds. The other Galapagos-bobolink match, Plasmodium lineage C, was identical to two other sequences from birds sampled in California. We detected a close variant of lineage C in brown-headed cowbirds. Taken together, this pattern suggests that bobolinks became infected with lineage B on the South American end of their migratory range, and with lineage C on the North American breeding grounds. Overall, we detected more parasite lineages in bobolinks than in cowbirds. Galapagos Plasmodium had similar host breadth compared to the non-Galapagos haemosporidian lineages detected in bobolinks, brown-headed cowbirds, and other grassland species. This study highlights the utility of global haemosporidian data in the context of migratory bird-parasite connectivity. It is possible that migratory bobolinks bring parasites to the Galapagos and that these parasites originate from different biogeographic regions representing both their breeding and overwintering sites. PMID: 26865960 [PubMed] 

4. Zookeys. 2016 Jan 13;(552):137-54. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.552.6934. eCollection 2016. 

Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain). 
Pérez-Luque AJ(1), Barea-Azcón JM(2), Álvarez-Ruiz L(3), Bonet-García FJ(1), Zamora R(1). Author information: (1)Laboratorio de Ecología (iEcolab), Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación del Sistema Tierra en Andalucía (CEAMA), Universidad de Granada, Avenida del Mediterráneo s/n, 18006, Granada, Spain; Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Ecología, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071, Granada, Spain. (2)Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua, Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio (Junta de Andalucía), C/ Joaquina Egüaras 10, E-18013, Granada, Spain. (3)Laboratorio de Ecología (iEcolab), Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación del Sistema Tierra en Andalucía (CEAMA), Universidad de Granada, Avenida del Mediterráneo s/n, 18006, Granada, Spain. 

In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID: 26865820 [PubMed] 

5. Genome Biol Evol. 2016 Feb 9. pii: evw013. [Epub ahead of print] 

Contrasting patterns of evolutionary diversification in the olfactory repertoires of reptile and bird genomes. 
Vandewege MW(1), Mangum SF(2), Gabaldón T(3), Castoe TA(4), Ray DA(2), Hoffmann FG(5). Author information: (1)Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, USA. (2)Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA. (3)Bioinformatics and Genomics Programme, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona, Spain Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain Institució Catalana de Recerca I Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain. (4)Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76010, USA. (5)Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, USA Institute for Genomics, Biocomputing and Biochemistry, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, USA 

Olfactory receptors (ORs) are membrane proteins that mediate the detection of odorants in the environment, and are the largest vertebrate gene family. Comparative studies of mammalian genomes indicate that OR repertoires vary widely, even between closely related lineages, as a consequence of frequent OR gains and losses. Several studies also suggest that mammalian OR repertoires are influenced by life history traits. Sauropsida is a diverse group of vertebrates group that is the sister group to mammals, and includes birds, testudines, squamates and crocodilians, and represents a natural system to explore predictions derived from mammalian studies. In this study, we analyzed OR repertoire variation among several representative species and found that the number of intact OR genes in sauropsid genomes analyzed ranged over an order of magnitude, from 108 in the green anole to over 1000 in turtles. Our results suggest that different sauropsid lineages have highly divergent OR repertoire composition that derive from lineage-specific combinations of gene expansions, losses, and retentions of ancestral OR genes. These differences also suggest that varying degrees of adaption related to life history have shaped the unique OR repertoires observed across sauropsid lineages. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. PMID: 26865070 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

6. Conserv Biol. 2016 Feb 11. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12687. [Epub ahead of print] 

Evaluating the efficacy of restoration plantings through DNA barcoding characterization of frugivorous bird diets. 
Galimberti A(1), Spinelli S(2), Bruno A(2), Mezzasalma V(2), De Mattia F(3), Cortis P(4), Labra M(2). Author information: (1)ZooPlantLab, Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Della Scienza 2, 20126, Milan, Italy. (2)ZooPlantLab, Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Della Scienza 2, 20126, Milan, Italy. (3)FEM2-Ambiente s.r.l., Della Scienza 2, 20126, Milan, Italy. (4)Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Macrosection of Botany and Botanic Garden, University of Cagliari, Viale S. Ignazio 13, 09123, Cagliari, Italy.  
Frugivores are critical components of restoration programs, because of their role as seed dispersers. Thus, knowledge about bird-plant trophic relationships is essential to evaluate the efficacy of restoration processes. Traditionally, the diet of frugivores is characterized by the microscopic identification of plant residues in droppings, which is time-consuming, requires botanic knowledge, and cannot be used for fragments lacking detectable morphological characteristics (e.g., fragmented seeds and skins). This study aimed to test DNA barcoding as a universal and rapid molecular tool to characterize the diet of a frugivorous bird bioindicator (blackcap, Sylvia atricapilla) and apply this tool to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts and monitor the diversity of potentially dispersed plants in a protected area in Northern Italy. The diet of blackcap was molecularly characterized by identifying the plant residues found in 642 droppings collected at the restored site during the autumn migration in a three year survey. Intact seeds (IS) and fragmented plant material (FPM) were analyzed at two plastidial barcode loci (rbcL and trnH-psbA) and identification results were validated by comparison with a reference molecular dataset of local flora. At least 17 plant taxa, including most of the newly transplanted species were found. This study demonstrates that DNA barcoding is a useful tool to investigate the effectiveness of restoration plantings in addition to obtain information about fruit consumption and potential dispersal of invasive or unexpected plant species. Such approach provides valuable information that could be used to study local plant biodiversity and to monitor its evolution after restoration events. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26864475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

7. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2016 Feb 10. [Epub ahead of print] 

Hierarchical emergence of sequence sensitivity in the songbird auditory forebrain. 
Ono S(1,)(2,)(3), Okanoya K(1,)(2,)(3), Seki Y(4,)(5,)(6,)(7). Author information: (1)Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902, Japan. (2)ERATO, Okanoya Emotional Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan. (3)Emotional Information Joint Research Laboratory, RIKEN BSI, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan. (4)Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902, Japan. (5)ERATO, Okanoya Emotional Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan. (6)Emotional Information Joint Research Laboratory, RIKEN BSI, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan. (7)Faculty of Letters, Aichi University, 1-1 Machihata, Machihata-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8522, Japan. 

Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica) generate more complex sequences in their songs than zebra finches. Because of this, we chose this species to explore the signal processing of sound sequence in the primary auditory forebrain area, field L, and in a secondary area, the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). We simultaneously recorded activity from multiple single units in urethane-anesthetized birds. We successfully replicated the results of a previous study in awake zebra finches examining stimulus-specific habituation of NCM neurons to conspecific songs. Then, we used an oddball paradigm and compared the neural response to deviant sounds that were presented infrequently, with the response to standard sounds, which were presented frequently. In a single sound oddball task, two different song elements were assigned for the deviant and standard sounds. The response bias to deviant elements was larger in NCM than in field L. In a triplet sequence oddball task, two triplet sequences containing elements ABC and ACB were assigned as the deviant and standard. Only neurons in NCM that displayed broad-shaped spike waveforms had sensitivity to the difference in element order. Our results suggest the hierarchical processing of complex sound sequences in the songbird auditory forebrain. PMID: 26864094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

8. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 10;11(2):e0148570. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148570. eCollection 2016. 

Linking Vital Rates of Landbirds on a Tropical Island to Rainfall and Vegetation Greenness. 
Saracco JF(1), Radley P(2), Pyle P(1), Rowan E(1), Taylor R(1), Helton L(1). Author information: (1)The Institute for Bird Populations, P.O. Box 1346, Point Reyes Station, CA, 94956-1346, United States of America. (2)Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Lands and Natural Resources, P. O. Box 10007, Saipan, MP, 96950, United States of America. 

Remote tropical oceanic islands are of high conservation priority, and they are exemplified by range-restricted species with small global populations. Spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall and plant productivity may be important in driving dynamics of these species. Yet, little is known about environmental influences on population dynamics for most islands and species. Here we leveraged avian capture-recapture, rainfall, and remote-sensed habitat data (enhanced vegetation index [EVI]) to assess relationships between rainfall, vegetation greenness, and demographic rates (productivity, adult apparent survival) of three native bird species on Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands: rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus), and golden white-eye (Cleptornis marchei). Rainfall was positively related to vegetation greenness at all but the highest rainfall levels. Temporal variation in greenness affected the productivity of each bird species in unique ways. Predicted productivity of rufous fantail was highest when dry and wet season greenness values were high relative to site-specific 5-year seasonal mean values (i.e., relative greenness); while the white-eye species had highest predicted productivity when relative greenness contrasted between wet and dry seasons. Survival of rufous fantail and bridled white eye was positively related to relative dry-season greenness and negatively related to relative wet-season greenness. Bridled white-eye survival also showed evidence of a positive response to overall greenness. Our results highlight the potentially important role of rainfall regimes in affecting population dynamics of species on oceanic tropical islands. Understanding linkages between rainfall, vegetation, and animal population dynamics will be critical for developing effective conservation strategies in this and other regions where the seasonal timing, extent, and variability of rainfall is expected to change in the coming decades. PMID: 26863013 [PubMed - in process] 

9. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 10;11(2):e0147340. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147340. eCollection 2016. 

Predicting Effects of Water Regime Changes on Waterbirds: Insights from Staging Swans. 
Nolet BA(1), Gyimesi A(1), van Krimpen RR(1,)(2), de Boer WF(2), Stillman RA(3). Author information: (1)Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. (2)Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. (3)Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole, Dorset, United Kingdom. 

Predicting the environmental impact of a proposed development is notoriously difficult, especially when future conditions fall outside the current range of conditions. Individual-based approaches have been developed and applied to predict the impact of environmental changes on wintering and staging coastal bird populations. How many birds make use of staging sites is mostly determined by food availability and accessibility, which in the case of many waterbirds in turn is affected by water level. Many water systems are regulated and water levels are maintained at target levels, set by management authorities. We used an individual-based modelling framework (MORPH) to analyse how different target water levels affect the number of migratory Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii staging at a shallow freshwater lake (Lauwersmeer, the Netherlands) in autumn. As an emerging property of the model, we found strong non-linear responses of swan usage to changes in water level, with a sudden drop in peak numbers as well as bird-days with a 0.20 m rise above the current target water level. Such strong non-linear responses are probably common and should be taken into account in environmental impact assessments. PMID: 26862895 [PubMed - in process] 

10. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 9;11(2):e0148928. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148928. eCollection 2016. 

Population Viability and Vital Rate Sensitivity of an Endangered Avian Cooperative Breeder, the White-Breasted Thrasher (Ramphocinclus brachyurus). 
Mortensen JL(1), Reed JM(1). Author information: (1)Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, United States of America. 

Social behaviors can significantly affect population viability, and some behaviors might reduce extinction risk. We used population viability analysis to evaluate effects of past and proposed habitat loss on the White-breasted Thrasher (Ramphocinclus brachyurus), a cooperatively breeding songbird with a global population size of <2000 individuals. We used an individual-based approach to build the first demographic population projection model for this endangered species, parameterizing the model with data from eight years of field study before and after habitat loss within the stronghold of the species' distribution. The recent habitat loss resulted in an approximately 18% predicted decline in population size; this estimate was mirrored by a separate assessment using occupancy data. When mortality rates remained close to the pre-habitat loss estimate, quasi-extinction probability was low under extant habitat area, but increased with habitat loss expected after current plans for resort construction are completed. Post-habitat loss mortality rate estimates were too high for projected populations to persist. Vital rate sensitivity analyses indicated that population growth rate and population persistence were most sensitive to juvenile mortality. However, observed values for adult mortality were closest to the threshold value above which populations would crash. Adult mortality, already relatively low, may have the least capacity to change compared to other vital rates, whereas juvenile mortality may have the most capacity for improvement. Results suggest that improving mortality estimates and determining the cause(s) of juvenile mortality should be research priorities. Despite predictions that aspects of cooperative systems may result in variation in reproduction or juvenile mortality being the most sensitive vital rates, adult mortality was the most sensitive in half of the demographic models of other avian cooperative breeders. Interestingly, vital rate sensitivity differed by model type. However, studies that explicitly modeled the species' cooperative breeding system found reproduction to be the most sensitive rate. PMID: 26859690 [PubMed - in process] 

11. Curr Biol. 2016 Feb 8;26(3):R105-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.005. 

Supergenes: The Genomic Architecture of a Bird with Four Sexes. 
Campagna L(1). Author information: (1)Fuller Evolutionary Biology Program, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14950, USA. Electronic address: 

Supergenes are clusters of physically linked, co-evolving genes that often control complex traits. A new study clarifies the origin and possible fate of a fascinating supergene that determines the coloration and mating behavior of a widespread North American bird. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID: 26859263 [PubMed - in process] 

12. Nuncius. 2015;30(3):637-74. 

Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 
Canadelli E. 

The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community. PMID: 26856068 [PubMed - in process] 

13. PeerJ. 2016 Feb 1;4:e1652. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1652. eCollection 2016. 

Patterns of bird-window collisions inform mitigation on a university campus. 
Ocampo-Peñuela N(1), Winton RS(1), Wu CJ(2), Zambello E(3), Wittig TW(1), Cagle NL(1). Author information: (1)Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University , Durham, NC , United States. (2)Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Ecology & Environment Inc., Arlington, VA, United States. (3)Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Tourism Development Department, Okaloosa County, Fort Walton Beach, FL, United States. 

Bird-window collisions cause an estimated one billion bird deaths annually in the United States. Building characteristics and surrounding habitat affect collision frequency. Given the importance of collisions as an anthropogenic threat to birds, mitigation is essential. Patterned glass and UV-reflective films have been proven to prevent collisions. At Duke University's West campus in Durham, North Carolina, we set out to identify the buildings and building characteristics associated with the highest frequencies of collisions in order to propose a mitigation strategy. We surveyed six buildings, stratified by size, and measured architectural characteristics and surrounding area variables. During 21 consecutive days in spring and fall 2014, and spring 2015, we conducted carcass surveys to document collisions. In addition, we also collected ad hoc collision data year-round and recorded the data using the app iNaturalist. Consistent with previous studies, we found a positive relationship between glass area and collisions. Fitzpatrick, the building with the most window area, caused the most collisions. Schwartz and the Perk, the two small buildings with small window areas, had the lowest collision frequencies. Penn, the only building with bird deterrent pattern, caused just two collisions, despite being almost completely made out of glass. Unlike many research projects, our data collection led to mitigation action. A resolution supported by the student government, including news stories in the local media, resulted in the application of a bird deterrent film to the building with the most collisions: Fitzpatrick. We present our collision data and mitigation result to inspire other researchers and organizations to prevent bird-window collisions. PMCID: PMC4741078 PMID: 26855877 [PubMed] 

14. PeerJ. 2016 Feb 1;4:e1598. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1598. eCollection 2016. 

Phylogenetic and morphologic evidence confirm the presence of a new montane cloud forest associated bird species in Mexico, the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii; Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae). 
Hanna ZR(1), Ortiz-Ramírez MF(2), Ríos-Muñoz CA(3), Cayetano-Rosas H(2), Bowie RC(4), Navarro-Sigüenza AG(5). Author information: (1)Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America; Ornithology & Mammalogy, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America. (2)Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, Distrito Federal, México; Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, Distrito Federal, México. (3)Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, Distrito Federal, México; Unidad de Investigación en Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, Distrito Federal, México. (4)Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America. (5)Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , México, Distrito Federal , México. 

Here we provide evidence to support an extension of the recognized distributional range of the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii) to include southern Mexico. We collected two specimens in breeding condition in northwestern Sierra Norte de Chiapas, Mexico. Morphologic and genetic evidence support their identity as Elaenia frantzii. We compared environmental parameters of records across the entire geographic range of the species to those at the northern Chiapas survey site and found no climatic differences among localities. PMCID: PMC4741067 PMID: 26855860 [PubMed] 

15. Res Vet Sci. 2016 Feb;104:123-5. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.12.010. Epub 2015 Dec 23. 

Plasmodium spp. In a captive raptor collection of a safaripark in northwest Italy. 
Scaglione FE(1), Cannizzo FT(2), Chiappino L(2), Sereno A(2), Ripepi M(3), Salamida S(4), Manuali E(4), Bollo E(2). Author information: (1)Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università degli Studi di Torino, Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Italia. Electronic address: (2)Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università degli Studi di Torino, Largo P. Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Italia. (3)Practicing Veterinarian, Safaripark Pombia, SS 32 Km 23,4, 28050 Pombia (NO), Italia. (4)Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Umbria e delle Marche, Via Gaetano Salvemini, 1, 06126 Perugia, Italia. PMID: 26850550 [PubMed - in process] 20. Parazitologiia. 2015 Jul-Aug;49(4):304-8. NEW DATA ON BIRD HELMINTHS IN MONGOLIA. Lebedeva DI, Chantuu K. 

For the first time the data on helminths in piscivorous birds (the great cormorant and the Mongolian gull) in Mongolia were obtained. Surveys yielded 11 species (Cestoda--2, Trematoda--6, Nematoda--3). The cormorant hosted 5 helminth species, the herring gull--6 species. PMID: 26827489 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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