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Tuesday, 25 August 2015

What's new for 'birdRS' in PubMed: August Week 3 2015

birdRS Latest News

This message contains My NCBI what's new results from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PubMed Results

1. J Parasitol. 2015 Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print] 

Casalins L(1), Brugni N(2), Rauque CA(3). Author information: (1)a Universidad Nacional del Comahue. (2)b Universidad Nacional del Comahue. (3)c Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Universidad Nacional del Comahue. 

The manipulation of intermediate host behavior may increase chances of parasite transmission to the definitive host. In freshwater environments of the Neotropical Region, studies on behavioral manipulations by parasites are scarce, and the majority of them only considered a single parasite species and/or 1 life-stage of a particular parasite species. In Andean Patagonian lakes of Argentina, the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is infected by larvae of the fish nematode Hedruris suttonae and by the bird acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. The 3 objectives of the present study were to determine whether H. suttonae and Pseudocorynosoma sp. differ in their effects on behavior of H. patagonica, whether such modification is associated with parasite development, and to assess the associations between behavioral traits. From naturally parasitized amphipods, activity (swimming levels) and phototaxis (light preference) was measured. Only in phototaxis trials, larvae of H. suttonae induced significantly higher levels of photophilia, so we infer that they are manipulative. Scores of activity and phototaxis were positive and significantly related for non-parasitized female amphipods and for amphipods parasitized by larvae of Pseudocorynosoma sp. but were not associated in amphipods parasitized with larvae of H. suttonae (infective and non infective), suggesting that infection broke the relationship between these variables. PMID: 26295566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

2. Evolution. 2015 Aug 21. doi: 10.1111/evo.12754. [Epub ahead of print] 

Long lifespans have evolved with long and monounsaturated fatty acids in birds. 
Galván I(1), Naudí A(2), Erritzøe J(3), Møller AP(4), Barja G(5), Pamplona R(2). Author information: (1)Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Estación Biológica de Doñana - CSIC, c/ Américo Vespucio s/s, 41092, Sevilla, Spain. (2)Departamento de Medicina Experimental, Universidad de Lleida - Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Lleida (IRBLleida), 25198, Lleida, Spain. (3)Taps Old Rectory, 6040, Christiansfeld, Denmark. (4)Laboratoire d'Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 362, 91405, Orsay Cedex, France. (5)Departamento de Fisiología Animal II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, c/ José Antonio Novais 2, 28040, Madrid, Spain. 

The evolution of lifespan is a central question in evolutionary biology, begging the question why there is so large variation among taxa. Specifically, a central quest is to unravel proximate causes of ageing. Here we show that the degree of unsaturation of liver fatty acids predicts maximum lifespan in 107 bird species. In these birds, the degree of fatty acid unsaturation is positively related to maximum lifespan across species. This is due to a positive effect of monounsaturated fatty acid content, while polyunsaturated fatty acid content negatively correlates with maximum lifespan. Furthermore, fatty acid chain length unsuspectedly increases with maximum lifespan independently of degree of unsaturation. These findings tune theories on the proximate causes of ageing while providing evidence that the evolution of lifespan in birds occurs in association with fatty acid profiles. This finding suggests that studies of proximate and ultimate questions may facilitate our understanding of these central evolutionary questions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26294378 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

3. Avian Dis. 2015 Mar;59(1):165-70. 

Electron-Beam-Inactivated Vaccine Against Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Molting Hens. 
Jesudhasan PR, McReynolds JL, Byrd AJ, He H, Genovese KJ, Droleskey R, Swaggerty CL, Kogut MH, Duke S, Nisbet DJ, Praveen C, Pillai SD. 

Electron-beam (eBeam) irradiation technology has a variety of applications in modern society. The underlying hypothesis was that eBeam-inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) cells can serve as a vaccine to control SE colonization and shedding in poultry birds. An eBeam dose of 2.5 kGy (kilograys) was used to inactivate a high-titer (10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]) preparation of SE cells. Microscopic studies revealed that the irradiation did not damage the bacterial cell membranes. The vaccine efficacy was evaluated by administering the eBeam-killed SE cells intramuscularly (1 x 10(6) CFU/bird) into 50-wk-old single comb white leghorn hens. On day 14 postvaccination, the hens were challenged orally with live SE cells (1 x 10(9) CFU) and SE colonization of liver, spleen, ceca, and ovaries determined on day 23. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 14, and 23 postvaccination and the sera were analyzed to quantify SE-specific IgG titers. The vaccinated chickens exhibited significantly (P < 0.0001) higher SE-specific IgG antibody responses and reduced SE ceca colonization (1.46 ± 0.39 logi10 CFU/g) compared to nonvaccinated birds (5.32 ± 0.32 log10 CFU/g). They also exhibited significantly lower SE colonization of the ovaries (1/30), spleen (3/30), liver (4/30), and ceca (7/30) compared to nonvaccinated birds. These results provide empirical evidence that eBeam-based SE vaccines are immunogenic and are capable of protecting chickens against SE colonization. The advantages of eBeam-based vaccine technology are that it is nonthermal, avoids the use of formalin, and can be used to generate inactivated vaccines rapidly to address strain-specific infections in farms or flocks. PMID: 26292553 [PubMed - in process] 

4. Avian Dis. 2015 Mar;59(1):153-6. 

Persistence and Tissue Distribution of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Serotypes 1 and 2 in Turkeys. 
Abdul R, Murgia MV, Saif YM. 

Two experiments were conducted to determine the persistence and tissue distribution of serotypes 1 and 2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in specific-pathogen-free and vaccinated turkeys. In Experiment 1, three groups of 2-wk-old turkey poults, including a negative control group, were used. In groups 1 and 2, 13 poults in each group were challenged with either serotype 1 (STC) or serotype 2 (OH) strains using an inoculum of 10(4) 50% embryo infectious dose (EID50)/0.2 ml/bird. Thymus, bursa, spleen, kidney, lungs, liver, pancreas, caecum, and breast and thigh muscles were sampled at predetermined intervals. The bursal tissues from birds inoculated with either serotype were reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) positive up to 21 days postinoculation (DPI). In both groups virus isolation from bursas was possible up to 14 DPI. Except for the bursas and spleens in birds inoculated with serotype 1 and bursas in birds inoculated with serotype 2, all other tissues were RT-PCR negative. In Experiment 2, five groups of turkey poults were used. At 4 wk of age, group 1 was challenged with a serotype 1 STC strain and group 2 with serotype 2 OH strain using an inoculum size of 10(2) EID50/0.2 ml for both serotypes. Groups 3 and 4 were vaccinated at 2 wk of age using an inactivated serotype 1 IBDV vaccine. At 2 wk postvaccination, groups 3 and 4 were challenged with STC and OH strains respectively. From group 1, bursal, spleen, and liver tissues were RT-PCR positive up to 14 DPI; breast muscle and kidney tissues were positive up to 7 DPI; and lungs and pancreatic tissues were positive up to 3 DPI. From group 2, bursal tissues were RT-PCR positive up to 14 DPI and lung tissues up to 3 DPI. All of the tissue samples collected from groups 3, 4, and 5 were RT-PCR negative. Virus could not be isolated from RT-PCR positive bursal homogenate. In this work, it was confirmed that the virus persisted in the bursa longer than in any other tissues. The difference in the results between Experiments 1 and 2 could be due to the age of poults at vaccination and the higher inoculum size used in Experiment 1. This study indicates that turkeys are more resistant to IBDV as compared to chickens. Viruses of serotypes 1 and 2 infect turkeys and persist in bursal tissue for 14 days and RNA was detected up to 21 days. PMID: 26292550 [PubMed - in process] 

5. Avian Dis. 2015 Mar;59(1):74-8. 

Effects of the Physical Form of Diet on the Outcome of an Artificial Salmonella Infection in Broilers. 
Ratert C, Sander SJ, Verspohl J, Beyerbach M, Kamphues J. 

To prove the hypothesis that the physical form of diet affects the outcome of an artificial infection with Salmonella Enteritidis in broilers, 7-day-old birds were allotted to one of four groups and fed botanically, and nearly also chemically identical diets, differing in grinding and further compaction. In total, two birds from each group (age 14 days) were administered on average 1.06 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of Salmonella Enteritidis directly into the crop by gavage and immediately put back as "seeder birds" into their respective groups. The salmonella status of each bird was analyzed by cloacal swabs, and at postmortem examination, cecal content and liver tissue samples were taken. Shedding (measured by cloacal swabs) was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in groups offered the coarsely ground and pelleted diet and the diet including whole wheat compared with the groups fed the finely ground and pelleted and the coarsely ground and extruded diet. Nevertheless, only broilers fed the diet containing whole wheat showed a significantly (P < 0.05) lower frequency of Salmonella Enteritidis isolation in the cecal content and liver tissue. This diet was characterized by the highest percentage of particles > 2 mm. In this study the physical form of diet affected the outcome of an artificial infection with Salmonella Enteritidis significantly. PMID: 26292538 [PubMed - in process] 

6. Avian Dis. 2015 Mar;59(1):38-45. 

A Multifactorial Analysis of the Extent to Which Eimeria and Fishmeal Predispose Broiler Chickens to Necrotic Enteritis. 
Rodgers NJ, Swick RA, Geier MS, Moore RJ, Choct M, Wu SB. 

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important infectious disease in chickens. Predisposing factors play critical roles both in disease outbreaks in the field and in models for experimental induction of disease. Systematic manipulation and study of predisposing factors help to optimize methods for the experimental reproduction of disease. The nature of such factors may play a confounding role in challenge models and, therefore, warrant investigation to determine their importance in industry-relevant NE reproduction models. In the present study, we examined the roles of dietary fishmeal inclusion, Eimeria inoculation (E), and Clostridium perfringens challenge (C) on broiler growth performance and induction of NE infection. The results showed that E, preceding C, greatly increased the severity of NE induced in broiler chickens, but fishmeal addition played only a marginal role in the challenge model. Bird performance was significantly affected by all three factors during the 35-day experimental period. Fishmeal increased body weight, but statistically significant effects of fishmeal were not observed on feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake. Both Eimeria and C. perfringens significantly reduced body weight gain and feed intake. E but not C led to significantly poorer FCR. These findings indicate that dietary fishmeal may be removed from the model to allow the performance results of challenged chicks to be equivalent to the performance of chicks in the field. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that an NE challenge model without fishmeal is valid and removes bird performance bias in the model introduced by feeding high fishmeal diets, refining the model to facilitate the yield of more commercially relevant results. PMID: 26292532 [PubMed - in process] 

7. Braz J Biol. 2015 Aug 18. pii: S1519-69842015005000914. [Epub ahead of print] 

Bird assemblage mist-netted in an Atlantic Forest area: a comparison between vertically-mobile and ground-level nets. 
Vecchi MB(1), Alves M(1). Author information: (1)Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, BR. 

Mist nets may be opened at different heights in the forest, but they are seldom used over 3 m above the ground. We used two different methods to compare species richness, composition, and relative abundance and trophic structure of the bird assemblage at Ilha Grande (with a 290 birds standardization): conventional ground-level nets (0-2.4 m height range) and elevated nets (0-17 m) with an adjustable-height system (modified from Humphrey et al., 1968) that we call vertically-mobile nets. There were significant differences in capture frequencies between methods for about 20% of the species (Chi-squared test, P<0.05), and the two methods caught different assemblages. Ground-level nets recorded less species, and they comparatively overestimated mainly Suboscine insectivores and underestimated frugivores and nectarivores. Different sampling methods used at the same location may result in very different diagnoses of the avifauna present, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We encourage studies involving mist net sampling to include the upper strata to more accurately represent the avifauna in Atlantic Forest. PMID: 26292105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

8. J Comp Neurol. 2015 Aug 19. doi: 10.1002/cne.23886. [Epub ahead of print] 

The second tectofugal pathway in a songbird (Taeniopygia guttata) revisited: tectal and lateral pontine projections to the posterior thalamus, thence to the intermediate nidopallium. 
Wild JM(1), Gaede AH(2). Author information: (1)Department of Anatomy with Radiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. (2)Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 

Birds are almost always said to have two visual pathways from the retina to the telencephalon: thalamofugal terminating in the Wulst, and tectofugal terminating in the entopallium. Often ignored is a second tectofugal pathway that terminates in the nidopallium medial to and separate from the entopallium (e.g., Gamlin and Cohen, J Comp Neurol, 250: 296-310, 1986). Using standard tract tracing and electroanatomical techniques, we extend earlier evidence of a second tectofugal pathway in songbirds (Wild, J Comp Neurol, 349:512-535, 1994), by showing that visual projections to nucleus uvaeformis (Uva) of the posterior thalamus in zebra finches extend farther rostrally than to Uva as generally recognized in the context of the song control system. Projections to 'rUva' resulted from injections of biotinylated dextran amine into the lateral pontine nucleus (PL), and led to extensive retrograde labeling of tectal neurons, predominantly in layer 13. Injections in rUva also resulted in extensive retrograde labeling of predominantly layer 13 tectal neurons, retrograde labeling of PL neurons, and anterograde labeling of PL. It thus appears that some tectal neurons could project to rUva and PL via branched axons. Ascending projections of rUva terminated throughout a visually responsive region of the intermediate nidopallium (NI) lying between nucleus interface medially and the entopallium laterally. Lastly, as shown by Clarke in pigeons (J Comp Neurol, 174:535-552, 1977), we found that PL projects to caudal cerebellar folia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 26287809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

9. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Aug 17;16(8):19433-46. doi: 10.3390/ijms160819433. 

Molecular and Functional Characterization of Thioredoxin 1from Korean Rose Bitterling (Rhodeus uyekii). 
Kim J(1), Moon JY(2), Kim WJ(3), Kim DG(4), Nam BH(5), Kim YO(6), Park JY(7), An CM(8), Kong HJ(9). Author information: (1)Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-705, Korea. (2)Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-705, Korea. (3)Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-705, Korea. (4)Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-705, Korea. (5)Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-705, Korea. (6)Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-705, Korea. (7)Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-705, Korea. (8)Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-705, Korea. (9)Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan 619-705, Korea. 

Thioredoxin is a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme that belongs to the reductase family. In this study, we cloned and characterized thioredoxin 1 cDNA from the Korean rose bitterling Rhodeus uyekii (RuTrx). The full-length RuTrx cDNA consists of 674 bp with a 324 nt open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 107 aa protein. The deduced RuTrx amino acid sequence indicated a characteristic redox active site, (31)WCGPC(35). Pairwise alignment revealed RuTrx amino acid identity (55.1%-83.2%) with orthologs from various species of mammalia, amphibia, fish and bird. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to determine the evolutionary position of RuTrx. Expression analysis showed that RuTrx transcripts were present in all of the tissues examined, and was high in the hepatopancreas of R. uyekii. During early development, the expression of RuTrx transcripts was increased. Recombinant RuTrx protein (rRuTrx) was tested for its capacity to serve as an antioxidant enzyme using a metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) system. The ability of rRuTrx to protect against supercoiled DNA cleavage due to oxidative nicking increased in a dose-dependent manner. In Raw264.7 cells, Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining for ROS production indicated the antioxidant activity of rRuTrx. Together, these findings suggest that RuTrx may play a role in maintaining the redox state balance in Korean rose bitterling R. uyekii. PMID: 26287186 [PubMed - in process] 

10. Poult Sci. 2015 Aug 17. pii: pev243. [Epub ahead of print] 

Evaluation of yeast dietary supplementation in broilers challenged or not with Salmonella on growth performance, cecal microbiota composition and Salmonella in ceca, cloacae and carcass skin. 
Mountzouris KC(1), Dalaka E(2), Palamidi I(2), Paraskeuas V(2), Demey V(3), Theodoropoulos G(4), Fegeros K(2). Author information: (1)Department of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 118 55, Athens, Greece (2)Department of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 118 55, Athens, Greece. (3)Lallemand Animal Nutrition, 19 rue de Briquetiers, BP 59, 31702, Blagnac, France. (4)Department of Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 118 55, Athens, Greece. 

The dietary supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii was evaluated in broilers challenged or not challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Depending on yeast inclusion at 0 (C) or 1 × 10(9) cfu/kg diet (Y) and SE challenge (0 or log 6.3 cfu/bird) on d 15, the experiment had four treatments C, Y, C-SE, and Y-SE, respectively. Each treatment had seven replicate floor pens with 15 broilers. Growth performance responses were determined weekly and overall for the 5 week experimental period. Salmonella levels and prevalence in ceca, cloacae, and carcass skin were determined by culture procedures, while cecal microbiota was determined by real time PCR. Yeast supplementation had no effect (PY > 0.05) on growth performance. For the overall post SE-challenge period (i.e., wk 3 to wk 5), Salmonella reduced body weight gain (BWG) (PSE < 0.001), feed intake (FI) (PSE = 0.032), and the European production efficiency (EPEF) factor (PSE = 0.005). Broilers Y-SE had higher (P < 0.001) overall BW gain compared to C-SE ones. Overall mortality was 2.14% and did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatments. Reduced Salmonella levels in the cloacae (P = 0.014) and on the breast skin (P = 0.006) and lower prevalence on the neck skin (P = 0.007) were noted for treatment Y-SE compared to C-SE. Yeast supplementation did not have an effect (P > 0.05) on cecal microbiota composition at d 1 and d 21 post SE-challenge. On the contrary, SE-challenge reduced cecal levels of total bacteria (PSE = 0.002), E. coli (PSE = 0.006), Bifidobacterium spp. (PSE = 0.006), Bacteroides spp. (PSE = 0.010), and Clostridial populations belonging to cluster I and cluster XIVa, (PSE = 0.047 and PSE = 0.001, respectively) on d 1 post SE-challenge. At 21 d post SE-challenge, only the levels of cecal Lactobacillus spp. (PSE = 0.001) and Bifidobacterium spp. (PSE = 0.049) were reduced compared to the non SE-challenged groups. In conclusion, yeast supplementation in SE challenged broilers (Y-SE) was beneficial for growth performance and reduced Salmonella presence compared to C-SE ones. The disturbance of cecal microbiota balance by SE merits further investigation for potential implications in gut and overall bird health. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc. PMID: 26286998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

11. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Aug 17. pii: trv066. [Epub ahead of print] 

A review of West Nile and Usutu virus co-circulation in Europe: how much do transmission cycles overlap? 
Nikolay B(1). Author information: (1)Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK 

Due to the increasing global spread of arboviruses, the geographic extent of virus co-circulation is expanding. This complicates the diagnosis of febrile conditions and can have direct effects on the epidemiology. As previously demonstrated, subsequent infections by two closely related viruses, such as those belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex, can lead to partial or complete cross-immunity, altering the risk of infections or the outcome of disease. Two flaviviruses that may interact at population level are West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV). These pathogens have antigenic cross-reactivity and affect human and animal populations throughout Europe. This systematic review investigates the overlap of WNV and USUV transmission cycles, not only geographically but also in terms of host and vector ranges. Co-circulation of WNV and USUV was reported in 10 countries and the viruses were found to infect 34 common bird species belonging to 11 orders. Moreover, four mosquito species are potential vectors for both viruses. Taken together, these data suggest that WNV and USUV transmission overlaps substantially in Europe and highlight the importance of further studies investigating the interactions between the two viruses within host and vector populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: PMID: 26286946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

12. PLoS Biol. 2015 Aug 18;13(8):e1002225. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002225. eCollection 2015. 

Intractable Tangles in the Bird Family Tree. 
Roberts RG(1). Author information: (1)Public Library of Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 

Rapid sequential speciation events can outpace the fixation of genetic variants, resulting in a family tree that lacks clear branching patterns. A new study of bird genomes reveals such an explosive super-radiation that may coincide with the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period. PMID: 26284616 [PubMed - in process] 

13. Front Psychol. 2015 Jul 28;6:1082. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01082. eCollection 2015. 

Can a bird brain do phonology? 
Samuels BD(1). Author information: (1)Department of Linguistics and Cognitive Science, Pomona College Claremont, CA, USA ; Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA, USA. 

A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways. PMCID: PMC4516810 PMID: 26284006 [PubMed] 

14. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Aug 17. pii: 201504788. [Epub ahead of print] 

Confronting and resolving competing values behind conservation objectives. 
Karp DS(1), Mendenhall CD(2), Callaway E(3), Frishkoff LO(2), Kareiva PM(4), Ehrlich PR(5), Daily GC(6). Author information: (1)Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720; The Nature Conservancy, Seattle, WA 98105; Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; (2)Center for Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; (3)Department of English, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106; (4)The Nature Conservancy, Seattle, WA 98105; (5)Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; Center for Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; (6)Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; Center for Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm SE-104 05, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, University of Stockholm, Stockholm SE-106 91, Sweden. 

Diverse motivations for preserving nature both inspire and hinder its conservation. Optimal conservation strategies may differ radically depending on the objective. For example, creating nature reserves may prevent extinctions through protecting severely threatened species, whereas incentivizing farmland hedgerows may benefit people through bolstering pest-eating or pollinating species. Win-win interventions that satisfy multiple objectives are alluring, but can also be elusive. To achieve better outcomes, we developed and implemented a practical typology of nature conservation framed around seven common conservation objectives. Using an intensively studied bird assemblage in southern Costa Rica as a case study, we applied the typology in the context of biodiversity's most pervasive threat: habitat conversion. We found that rural habitats in a varied tropical landscape, comprising small farms, villages, forest fragments, and forest reserves, provided biodiversity-driven processes that benefit people, such as pollination, seed dispersal, and pest consumption. However, species valued for their rarity, endemism, and evolutionary distinctness declined in farmland. Conserving tropical forest on farmland increased species that international tourists value, but not species discussed in Costa Rican newspapers. Despite these observed trade-offs, our analyses also revealed promising synergies. For example, we found that maintaining forest cover surrounding farms in our study region would likely enhance most conservation objectives at minimal expense to others. Overall, our typology provides a framework for resolving the competing objectives of modern conservation. PMID: 26283400 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

15. Infect Genet Evol. 2015 Aug 14. pii: S1567-1348(15)00324-X. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2015.08.001. [Epub ahead of print] 

Unique genomic organization of a novel Avipoxvirus detected in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). 
Bányai K(1), Palya V(2), Dénes B(3), Glávits R(3), Ivanics É(3), Horváth B(4), Farkas SL(5), Marton S(5), Bálint Á(3), Gyuranecz M(5), Erdélyi K(3), Dán Á(3). Author information: (1)Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address: (2)CEVA Phylaxia, Budapest, Hungary. (3)Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate, National Food Chain Safety Office, Budapest, Hungary. (4)Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary. (5)Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. 

Avipoxviruses are emerging pathogens affecting over 200 bird species worldwide. Genetic characterization of avipoxviruses is performed by analysis of genomic regions encoding the 4b and DNA polymerase. Whole genome sequence data are limited to a few avipoxvirus isolates. Based on phylogenetic analysis three major genetic clades are distinguished. In this study we report a novel avipoxvirus strain causing skin lesions in domestic turkey. The virus was identified in Hungary during 2011 in a flock of turkey vaccinated against avipoxvirus infection. The genome of the isolated strain, TKPV-HU1124/2011, was uniquely short (∼188.5 kbp) and was predicted to encode reduced number of proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding the 4b and DNA polymerase separated TKPV-HU1124/2011 from other turkey origin avipoxviruses and classified it into a new genetic clade. This study permits new insight into the genetic and genomic heterogeneity of avipoxviruses and pinpoints the importance of strain diversity in vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. PMID: 26282613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

16. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2015 Aug 19. [Epub ahead of print] 

Dietary Selenium Status Regulates the Transcriptions of Selenoproteome and Activities of Selenoenzymes in Chicken Kidney at Low or Super-nutritional Levels. 
Xu JX(1), Zhang C, Cao CY, Zhu SY, Li H, Sun YC, Li JL. Author information: (1)College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, People's Republic of China. 

To determine dietary selenium (Se) status regulates the transcriptions of selenoproteome and activities of selenoenzymes in chicken kidney, 1-day-old chickens received low Se (0.028 mg Se per kg of diet) or super-nutritional Se (3.0 or 5.0 mg Se per kg of diet) in their diets for 8 weeks. It was observed that dietary low or super-nutritional Se did not make renal appearance pathological changes in chicken. Low Se significantly reduced total antioxidant capability (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) content, but malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the kidney increased and decreased glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity with changes in their mRNA levels. Super-nutritional Se (3.0 mg/kg) increased T-AOC and GSH contents then made them reduce, but it reduced MDA content significantly, elevated then reduced Gpx activity, and decreased TrxR activity with changes in their mRNA levels. Dietary low Se downregulated the mRNA expressions of Gpx1-4, Txnrd3, Sepn1, Selw, Sepx1, Selh, and SEPSECS. At super-nutritional Se, most selenoproteins were upregulated in chicken kidney, but Sepp2 and Sep15 was only upregulated in Se excess (5.0 mg/kg) bird. These results indicated that dietary Se status stabilizes normal renal physiology function via regulation of the selenoprotemic transcriptions and selenoenzyme activities in avian. PMID: 26282526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

17. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2015 Jul-Aug;128(7-8):340-4. 

Mercury concentrations in feathers of Common Swifts (Apus apus). Legler M, Leonhard W, Koch NJ, Kummerfeld N. 

Mercury (Hg) has been well studied as a bioaccumulated contaminant in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. It has been found to have negative effects on carnivorous and piscivorous bird species with the highest Hg concentrations at the top of the food chain. The objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of mercury exposure in insectivorous birds, especially in a species of the family Apodidae. The Common Swift (Apus apus) that specialises on feeding on aerial plankton molts and winters as a long-distance migrant in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the breeding seasons 2011-2013 the concentrations of Hg in primary flight feathers (P8-P10) in juvenile (n = 35) and adult (n = 25) injured Common Swifts were examined in the area of Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. As a first reference, it was possible to determine feather Hg levels in adult (Mean ± SD: 0.53 mg/kg wet weight ± 0.37; Xmin-Xmax: 0.04-1.45 mg/kg; n = 25) as well as in juvenile Swifts (Mean ± SD: 0.11 mg/kg wet weight ± 0.06; Xmin-Xmax: 0.04-0.25 mg/kg; n = 35). The significant differences between the ages (p ≤ 0.001) are probably caused by differences in the feather growth, in accumulation of mercury for a longer time in adults as well as particularly in differences between mercury pollution in breeding and wintering ground. The mercury levels detected in swifts in this study are all below the range found by other authors to cause behavioural changes or reduced reproduction (5 mg/kg). PMID: 26281449 [PubMed - in process] 

18. Mov Ecol. 2015 Aug 15;3(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s40462-015-0046-5. eCollection 2015. 

Automated telemetry reveals age specific differences in flight duration and speed are driven by wind conditions in a migratory songbird. 
Mitchell GW(1), Woodworth BK(2), Taylor PD(3), Norris DR(4). Author information: (1)Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 Canada ; Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Center, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1H 0H3 Canada. (2)Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 Canada ; Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 Canada. (3)Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 Canada ; Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, ON N0E 1M0 Canada. (4)Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 Canada. 

BACKGROUND: Given that winds encountered on migration could theoretically double or half the energy expenditure of aerial migrants, there should be strong selection on behaviour in relation to wind conditions aloft. However, evidence suggests that juvenile songbirds are less choosy about wind conditions at departure relative to adults, potentially increasing energy expenditure during flight. To date, there has yet to be a direct comparison of flight efficiency between free-living adult and juvenile songbirds during migration in relation to wind conditions aloft, likely because of the challenges of following known aged individual songbirds during flight. We used an automated digital telemetry array to compare the flight efficiency of adult and juvenile Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) as they flew nearly 100 km during two successive stages of their fall migration; a departure flight from their breeding grounds out over the ocean and then a migratory flight along a coast. Using a multilevel path modelling framework, we evaluated the effects of age, flight stage, tailwind component, and crosswind component on flight duration and groundspeed. RESULTS: We found that juveniles departed under wind conditions that were less supportive relative to adults and that this resulted in juveniles taking 1.4 times longer to complete the same flight trajectories as adults. We did not find an effect of age on flight duration or groundspeed after controlling for wind conditions aloft, suggesting that both age groups were flying at similar airspeeds. We also found that groundspeeds were 1.7 times faster along the coast than over the ocean given more favourable tailwinds along the coast and because birds appeared to be climbing in altitude over the ocean, diverting some energy from horizontal to vertical movement. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first evidence that adult songbirds have considerably more efficient migratory flights than juveniles, and that this efficiency is driven by the selection of more supportive tailwind conditions aloft. We suggest that the tendency for juveniles to be less choosy about wind conditions at departure relative to adults could be adaptive if the benefits of having a more flexible departure schedule exceed the time and energy savings realized during flight with more supportive winds. PMCID: PMC4537592 PMID: 26279850 [PubMed] 

19. Microb Pathog. 2015 Aug 13. pii: S0882-4010(15)30005-X. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2015.08.006. [Epub ahead of print] 

Detection of bacteria and fungi and assessment of the molecular aspects and resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from confiscated passerines intended for reintroduction programs. 
Braconaro P(1), Saidenberg AB(2), Benites NR(2), Zuniga E(2), da Silva AM(3), Sanches TC(3), Zwarg T(3), Brandão PE(2), Melville PA(2). 
Author information: (1)Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zoothecny, University of São Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, CEP 05508-270 São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: (2)Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zoothecny, University of São Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, CEP 05508-270 São Paulo, Brazil. (3)Department of Parks and Green Areas of São Paulo (DEPAVE), Avenida Quarto Centenário, Portão 7A, Parque Ibirapuera CEP 04030-000, Brazil. 

Many native bird species are currently considered rare in Brazil because they have been indiscriminately collected by animal traffickers and commercialized, leading to dwindling numbers in their natural habitats. Confiscated animals are at times destined for reintroduction programs that must ensure these animals do not pose a risk to native populations. Healthy or sick wild passerines may carry a great diversity of microorganisms. Therefore, knowledge of the sanitary status of confiscated animals destined for reintroduction is critical to assess whether these animals act as microorganism carriers and to investigate the epidemiology of transmissible diseases, a crucial aspect for animal and human health preservation. This study examined the occurrence of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria and fungi in cloacal swabs collected from wild confiscated passerines intended for reintroduction programs. In vitro susceptibility tests of the most frequent isolates as well as studies of the molecular aspects of Escherichia coli isolates were also performed. There was microorganism growth in 62.5% of 253 samples. The microorganisms that were most frequently isolated were Staphylococcus spp. (15.0%), Micrococcus spp. (11.5%), E. coli (10.7%) and Klebsiella spp. (10.7%). Fifteen bacteria genera and seven fungi genera were isolated. Multidrug-resistance to antimicrobials was observed in Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates. The high occurrence of Enterobacteria observed is possibly related to the sanitary conditions in which confiscated animals are usually kept. One E. coli sample (out of 27 isolates) was positive for the S-fimbrial adhesion encoding gene (sfa). Considering the low occurrence of genes that encode virulence factors, confiscated passerines may represent a low risk for the potential transmission of EPEC, APEC, UPEC and NMEC isolates to other animals or humans. The potential risk of intra- or inter-specific transmission of multidrug-resistant isolates and the introduction of these microorganisms into the environment must be considered, although there are still therapeutic alternatives for treatment of these animals among the antimicrobials which were tested. The stress and poor hygiene conditions imposed on animals during trafficking may have caused their contamination by multidrug-resistant agents transmitted by humans or by the precarious environment to which they were subjected. Risks related to the dissemination of Salmonella spp., Cryptococcus spp. and Candida spp. are low when reintroduction programs are considered. 
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. PMID: 26279195 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 

20. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015 Aug 13. pii: S0892-0362(15)30021-0. doi: 10.1016/ [Epub ahead of print] 

In ovo exposure to organophosphorous flame retardants: survival, development, neurochemical, and behavioral changes in white leghorn chickens. 
Bradley M(1), Rutkiewicz J(2), Mittal K(1), Fernie K(3), Basu N(4). 
Author information: (1)Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada. (2)Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; ToxServices, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. (3)Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada; Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada. (4)Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada. Electronic address: 

Organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs) are contaminants of emerging concern. There is growing evidence of environmental contamination and exposures to both humans and wildlife. Here, the objective was to increase understanding of the potential neurodevelopmental effects of two relevant OPFRs, TMPP (tri (methylphenyl) phosphate; a non-halogen-containing OPFR) and TDCIPP (tris (1,3-dichloro-isopropyl) phosphate; a halogen-containing OPFR) in an avian embryo/chick model. We injected white leghorn chicken eggs with a range of TMPP (0, 10, 100, and 1,000ng/g) or TDCIPP (0, 10, 100, 1,000, 50,000ng/g) concentrations at incubation day 0 exposing embryos throughout the ~21-day in ovo period. Hatching success was unaffected by TMPP, but TDCIPP-exposed chicks had higher early-incubation mortality in 100 and 50,000ng/g groups. On 7-9-day-old chicks, we assessed behavior via tests concerning righting reflex, angled balance beams, gait patterns, wing flap reflex, and open field movements. Chicks exposed to 100ng/g TDCIPP achieved 40% lower maximum velocity in the open field test than vehicle-exposed controls, while those exposed to 1,000ng/g TDCIPP achieved 20% higher maximum velocity than vehicle-exposed controls. Chicks exposed to 50,000ng/g TDCIPP showed reduced righting response success. There were no dose- or treatment-related differences in angled beam, gait analysis, or wing flap reflex tests. Cerebrum hemispheres from 10-day-old chicks were examined for neurochemistry (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] activity and both nicotinic [nACh] and muscarinic [mACh] acetylcholine receptor levels) and cerebellums were examined for histopathology. TDCIPP-exposed chicks had reduced number of degenerate Purkinje cells (TDCIPP, 1,000ng/g), possibly indicating disruption of neurodevelopment. No neurochemical effects were found in TMPP- or TDCIPP-exposed chicks. In general this study shows some possible neurodevelopmental effects in chicks exposed to TDCIPP when levels greatly exceeded those measured in wild bird eggs and no clear changes in TMPP-exposed chicks. This study builds upon previous in vitro studies as well as work on adult birds showing that toxic responses in avian models can vary among species and OPFRs. 
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. PMID: 26277804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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