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Monday, 4 May 2015

What's new for 'birdRS' in PubMed May 2015, Week 1

This message contains My NCBI what's new results from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM).
View complete results in PubMed (results may change over time).

PubMed Results



1. Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Apr 30. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12905. [Epub ahead of print]

The effect of range changes on the functional turnover, structure and diversity of bird assemblages under future climate scenarios.

Barbet-Massin M1, Jetz W.
Author information:
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA; Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7204 MNHN-CNRS-UPMC, Centre d'Ecologie et des Sciences de la Conservation, Paris, 75005, France.

Abstract

Animal assemblages fulfill a critical set of ecological functions for ecosystems that may be altered substantially as climate change-induced distribution changes lead to community disaggregation and reassembly. We combine species and community perspectives to assess the consequences of projected geographic range changes for the diverse functional attributes of avian assemblages worldwide. Assemblage functional structure is projected to change highly unevenly across space. These differences arise from both changes in the number of species and changes in species' relative local functional redundancy or distinctness. They sometimes result in substantial losses of functional diversity that could have severe consequences for ecosystem health. Range expansions may counter functional losses in high-latitude regions, but offer little compensation in many tropical and subtropical biomes. Future management of local community function and ecosystem services thus relies on understanding the global dynamics of species distributions and multiscale approaches that include the biogeographic context of species traits.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
PMID: 25931153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




2. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Apr 28;8(1):249. [Epub ahead of print]

Lyme disease bacterium does not affect attraction to rodent odour in the tick vector.

Berret J1,2, Voordouw MJ3,4.
Author information:
Laboratory of Ecology and Evolution of Parasites, Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. jeremy.berret@unine.ch.
Postal address: Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, 2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. jeremy.berret@unine.ch.
Laboratory of Ecology and Evolution of Parasites, Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. maarten.voordouw@unine.ch.
Postal address: Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, 2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. maarten.voordouw@unine.ch.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Tick-borne pathogens experience a conflict of interest when the tick vector chooses a vertebrate host that is incompetent for pathogen transmission. The qualitative manipulation hypothesis suggests that tick-borne pathogens can resolve this conflict in their favour by manipulating the host choice behaviour of the tick vector.

METHODS:

European Lyme disease is a model system for studying this conflict because Ixodes ricinus is a generalist tick species that vectors Borrelia pathogens that are specialized on different classes of vertebrate hosts. Avian specialists like B. garinii cannot survive in rodent reservoir hosts and vice versa for rodent specialists like B. afzelii. The present study tested whether Borrelia genospecies influenced the attraction of field-collected I. ricinus nymphs to rodent odours.

RESULTS:

Nymphs were significantly attracted to questing perches that had been scented with mouse odours. However, there was no difference in questing behaviour between nymphs infected with rodent- versus bird-specialized Borrelia genospecies.

CONCLUSION:

Our study suggests that the tick, and not the pathogen, controls the early stages of host choice behaviour.
Free Article
PMID: 25928557 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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3. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 30;10(4):e0124261. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124261.

Genomic Characterizations of Six Pigeon Paramyxovirus Type 1 Viruses Isolated from Live Bird Markets in China during 2011 to 2013.

Wang J1, Liu H1, Liu W2, Zheng D1, Zhao Y1, Li Y3, Wang Y1, Ge S1, Lv Y1, Zuo Y1, Yu S1, Wang Z1.
Author information:
OIE Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao 266032, China.
China Animal Disease Control Center, Beijing 100125, China.
Division of Epidemiology Survey, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao 266032, China.

Abstract

The genomes of six pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) isolated from symptomless pigeons in live poultry markets during the national active surveillance from 2011 to 2013 were sequenced and analyzed in this study. The complete genome lengths of all isolates were 15,192 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. All isolates had the same motif of 112RRQKRF117 at the cleavage site of the fusion protein, which was typical of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of complete genomes and six genes revealed that all isolates belonged to genotype VI in class II, but at least 2 sub-genotypes were identified. Most isolates were placed into sub-genotype VIb with the exception of pi/GX/1015/13, which was classified in sub-genotype VIa. The obvious antigenic difference between PPMV-1 isolates and La Sota strain was found based on the R-value calculated by cross hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. These results provided the evidence that PPMV-1 could be detected from healthy pigeons, and our study may be useful in designing vaccines used in pigeon, and developing molecular diagnostic tools to monitor and prevent future PPMV-1 outbreaks.
Free Article
PMID: 25928057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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4. Conserv Biol. 2015 Apr 29. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12523. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of landscape transformation on bird colonization and extinction patterns in a large-scale, long-term natural experiment.

Mortelliti A1, Lindenmayer DB.
Author information:
Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian Research Council Centre for Environmental Decisions, National Environmental Research Program, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 0200, Australia.

Abstract

Conversion of agricultural land to forest plantations is a major driver of global change. Studies on the impact of forest plantations on biodiversity in plantations and in the surrounding native vegetation have been inconclusive. Consequently, it is not known how to best manage the extensive areas of the planet currently covered by plantations. We used a novel, long-term (16 years) and large-scale (30,000 ha) landscape transformation natural experiment (the Nanangroe experiment, Australia) to test the effects of land conversion on population dynamics of 64 bird species associated with woodland and forest. A unique aspect of our study is that we focused on the effects of plantations on birds in habitat patches within plantations. Our study design included 56 treatment sites (Eucalyptus patches where the surrounding matrix was converted from grazed land to pine plantations), 55 control sites (Eucalyptus patches surrounded by grazed land), and 20 matrix sites (sites within the pine plantations and grazed land). Bird populations were studied through point counts, and colonization and extinction patterns were inferred through multiple season occupancy models. Large-scale pine plantation establishment affected the colonization or extinction patterns of 89% of studied species and thus led to a comprehensive turnover in bird communities inhabiting Eucalyptus patches embedded within the maturing plantations. Smaller bodied species appeared to respond positively to plantations (i.e., colonization increased and extirpation of these species decreased in patches surrounded by plantations) because they were able to use the newly created surrounding matrix. We found that the effects of forest plantations affected the majority of the bird community, and we believe these effects could lead to the artificial selection of one group of species at the expense of another.
© 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.
PMID: 25926353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




5. Int J Health Geogr. 2015 Apr 30;14(1):17. [Epub ahead of print]

Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality.

Wheeler BW1, Lovell R2, Higgins SL3, White MP4, Alcock I5, Osborne NJ6,7, Husk K8, Sabel CE9, Depledge MH10.
Author information:
European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro Campus, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, TR1 3HD, UK. B.W.Wheeler@exeter.ac.uk.
European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro Campus, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, TR1 3HD, UK. R.Lovell@exeter.ac.uk.
European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro Campus, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, TR1 3HD, UK. S.Higgins@exeter.ac.uk.
European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro Campus, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, TR1 3HD, UK. Mathew.White@exeter.ac.uk.
European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro Campus, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, TR1 3HD, UK. I.Alcock@exeter.ac.uk.
European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro Campus, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, TR1 3HD, UK. N.J.Osborne@exeter.ac.uk.
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Australia. N.J.Osborne@exeter.ac.uk.
NIHR CLAHRC South West Peninsula (PenCLAHRC), Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, N32, ITTC Building, Tamar Science Park, Plymouth, PL6 8BX, UK. kerryn.husk@plymouth.ac.uk.
School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Road, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK. c.sabel@bristol.ac.uk.
10 European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro Campus, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, TR1 3HD, UK. M.Depledge@exeter.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Many studies suggest that exposure to natural environments ('greenspace') enhances human health and wellbeing. Benefits potentially arise via several mechanisms including stress reduction, opportunity and motivation for physical activity, and reduced air pollution exposure. However, the evidence is mixed and sometimes inconclusive. One explanation may be that "greenspace" is typically treated as a homogenous environment type. However, recent research has revealed that different types and qualities of natural environments may influence health and wellbeing to different extents.

METHODS:

This ecological study explores this issue further using data on land cover type, bird species richness, water quality and protected or designated status to create small-area environmental indicators across Great Britain. Associations between these indicators and age/sex standardised prevalence of both good and bad health from the 2011 Census were assessed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for indicators of socio-economic deprivation and rurality, and also investigated effect modification by these contextual characteristics.

RESULTS:

Positive associations were observed between good health prevalence and the density of the greenspace types, "broadleaf woodland", "arable and horticulture", "improved grassland", "saltwater" and "coastal", after adjusting for potential confounders. Inverse associations with bad health prevalence were observed for the same greenspace types, with the exception of "saltwater". Land cover diversity and density of protected/designated areas were also associated with good and bad health in the predicted manner. Bird species richness (an indicator of local biodiversity) was only associated with good health prevalence. Surface water quality, an indicator of general local environmental condition, was associated with good and bad health prevalence contrary to the manner expected, with poorer water quality associated with better population health. Effect modification by income deprivation and urban/rural status was observed for several of the indicators.

CONCLUSIONS:

The findings indicate that the type, quality and context of 'greenspace' should be considered in the assessment of relationships between greenspace and human health and wellbeing. Opportunities exist to further integrate approaches from ecosystem services and public health perspectives to maximise opportunities to inform policies for health and environmental improvement and protection.
Free Article
PMID: 25924685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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6. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 29;10(4):e0123633. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123633. eCollection 2015.

Red squirrel middens influence abundance but not diversity of other vertebrates.

Posthumus EE1, Koprowski JL1, Steidl RJ1.
Author information:
Wildlife and Fisheries Science, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America.

Abstract

Some animals modify the environment in ways that can influence the resources available to other species. Because red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) create large piles of conifer-cone debris (middens) in which they store cones, squirrels concentrate resources that might affect biodiversity locally. To determine whether other animals are attracted to midden sites beyond their affinity for the same resources that attract red squirrels, we assessed associations between middens, mammals, and birds at population and community levels. We surveyed 75 middens where residency rates of red squirrels varied during the previous five years; sampling along this residency gradient permitted us to evaluate the influence of resources at middens beyond the influence of a resident squirrel. At each location, we quantified vegetation, landscape structure, abundance of conifer cones, and midden structure, and used capture-recapture, distance sampling, and remote cameras to quantify presence, abundance, and species richness of mammals and birds. Red squirrels and the resources they concentrated at middens influenced mammals and birds at the population scale and to a lesser extent at the community scale. At middens with higher residency rates of red squirrels, richness of medium and large mammals increased markedly and species richness of birds increased slightly. After accounting for local forest characteristics, however, only species richness of medium-to-large mammals was associated with a red squirrel being resident during surveys. In areas where red squirrels were resident during surveys or in areas with greater amounts of resources concentrated by red squirrels, abundances of two of four small mammal species and two of four bird species increased. We conclude that the presence of this ecosystem modifier and the resources it concentrates influence abundance of some mammals and birds, which may have implications for maintaining biodiversity across the wide geographic range inhabited by red squirrels and other larderhoarding animals.
Free Article
PMID: 25923695 [PubMed - in process]

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7. PeerJ. 2015 Apr 21;3:e895. doi: 10.7717/peerj.895. eCollection 2015.

Similarity thresholds used in DNA sequence assembly from short reads can reduce the comparability of population histories across species.

Harvey MG1, Judy CD2, Seeholzer GF1, Maley JM3, Graves GR4, Brumfield RT1.
Author information:
Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University , Baton Rouge, LA , USA ; Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University , Baton Rouge, LA , USA.
Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University , Baton Rouge, LA , USA ; Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University , Baton Rouge, LA , USA ; Department of Vertebrate Zoology, MRC-116, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution , Washington, D.C. , USA.
Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University , Baton Rouge, LA , USA ; Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University , Baton Rouge, LA , USA ; Moore Laboratory of Zoology, Occidental College , Los Angeles, CA , USA.
Department of Vertebrate Zoology, MRC-116, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution , Washington, D.C. , USA ; Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen Ø , Denmark.

Abstract

Comparing inferences among datasets generated using short read sequencing may provide insight into the concerted impacts of divergence, gene flow and selection across organisms, but comparisons are complicated by biases introduced during dataset assembly. Sequence similarity thresholds allow the de novo assembly of short reads into clusters of alleles representing different loci, but the resulting datasets are sensitive to both the similarity threshold used and to the variation naturally present in the organism under study. Thresholds that require high sequence similarity among reads for assembly (stringent thresholds) as well as highly variable species may result in datasets in which divergent alleles are lost or divided into separate loci ('over-splitting'), whereas liberal thresholds increase the risk of paralogous loci being combined into a single locus ('under-splitting'). Comparisons among datasets or species are therefore potentially biased if different similarity thresholds are applied or if the species differ in levels of within-lineage genetic variation. We examine the impact of a range of similarity thresholds on assembly of empirical short read datasets from populations of four different non-model bird lineages (species or species pairs) with different levels of genetic divergence. We find that, in all species, stringent similarity thresholds result in fewer alleles per locus than more liberal thresholds, which appears to be the result of high levels of over-splitting. The frequency of putative under-splitting, conversely, is low at all thresholds. Inferred genetic distances between individuals, gene tree depths, and estimates of the ancestral mutation-scaled effective population size (θ) differ depending upon the similarity threshold applied. Relative differences in inferences across species differ even when the same threshold is applied, but may be dramatically different when datasets assembled under different thresholds are compared. These differences not only complicate comparisons across species, but also preclude the application of standard mutation rates for parameter calibration. We suggest some best practices for assembling short read data to maximize comparability, such as using more liberal thresholds and examining the impact of different thresholds on each dataset.
PMCID: PMC4411482 Free PMC Article
PMID: 25922792 [PubMed]

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8. Evol Psychol. 2015 Apr 29;13(2):339-59.

Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

Lišková S1, Landová E2, Frynta D3.
Author information:
National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic..
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Praha 2, Czech Republic; National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic..
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Praha 2, Czech Republic; National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic.

Abstract

In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.
PMID: 25920889 [PubMed - in process]




9. J Wildl Dis. 2015 Apr 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Trichomonas gallinae Persistence in Four Water Treatments.

Purple KE1, Humm JM, Kirby RB, Saidak CG, Gerhold R.
Author information:
Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA.

Abstract

Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite commonly found in columbids, passerines, and several raptor species. Although T. gallinae is thought to spread between individuals and across species through shared water sources, little research has been conducted regarding the persistence of T. gallinae in the environment. To determine the persistence of T. gallinae in various communal water sources, we inoculated 1×106 trichomonads into 500 mL samples of distilled water, quarry water, bird bath water, and rain barrel water in two replicates. Aliquots of 0.5 mL were collected from each source at -1, 0, 15, 30, and 60 min; aliquots were incubated at 37 C and examined for trichomonads by light microscopy for five consecutive days. Live trichomonads were observed in all samples and at all sampling times except prior to inoculation (-1 min). The pH of water sources ranged from an average of 5.9 to 7.4 postsampling. Our findings indicate that T. gallinae can persist for up to 60 min in various water treatments and thus be infectious for birds drinking T. gallinae-contaminated water.
PMID: 25919469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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10. J Wildl Dis. 2015 Apr 28. [Epub ahead of print]

WEST NILE VIRUS-RELATED TRENDS IN AVIAN MORTALITY IN CALIFORNIA, 2003-2012.

Foss L1, Padgett K, Reisen WK, Kjemtrup A, Ogawa J, Kramer V.
Author information:
California Department of Public Health, Vector-Borne Disease Section, 850 Marina Parkway, Richmond, California 94804, USA;

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus transmitted enzootically by Culex mosquitoes among avian hosts. Since 2000, the California Dead Bird Surveillance Program (DBSP) has tracked avian mortality reported by the public on a telephone hotline and website and measured the prevalence of WNV infection in dead birds. We summarize herein WNV prevalence in dead birds tested and variation of WNV transmission over time and space with the use of DBSP data from 2003 to 2012. Prevalence among dead birds was highest in 2004, 2008, and 2012. This pattern was similar to peak WNV infection years for mosquitoes but not to human WNV incidence. Although American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) were most frequently reported and tested, this species ranked third in infection prevalence (44%) after Yellow-billed Magpies (Pica nuttalli; 62%) and Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica; 48%). Overall prevalence in American Robin (Turdus migratorius), House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), and House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) carcasses ranged from 18% to 22%. Corvid WNV prevalence was highest in South Coast, Bay/Delta, Sacramento, and San Joaquin valleys, and Klamath/North Coast bioregions, overlapping areas of elevated WNV activity in other surveillance measurements. Bioregional analysis revealed the avian species most likely to be reported and found positive in each bioregion. Our results may be useful to WNV surveillance and control efforts and provide insight into bird population trends in California.
PMID: 25919466 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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11. J Wildl Dis. 2015 Apr 28. [Epub ahead of print]

WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY DECAY RATE IN FREE-RANGING BIRDS.

McKee EM1, Walker ED, Anderson TK, Kitron UD, Brawn JD, Krebs BL, Newman C, Ruiz MO, Levine RS, Carrington ME, McLean RG, Goldberg TL, Hamer GL.
Author information:
Science Division, Governors State University, 1 University Parkway, University Park, Illinois 60484, USA.

Abstract

Antibody duration, following a humoral immune response to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, is poorly understood in free-ranging avian hosts. Quantifying antibody decay rate is important for interpreting serologic results and for understanding the potential for birds to serorevert and become susceptible again. We sampled free-ranging birds in Chicago, Illinois, USA, from 2005 to 2011 and Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from 2010 to 2012 to examine the dynamics of antibody decay following natural WNV infection. Using serial dilutions in a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we quantified WNV antibody titer in repeated blood samples from individual birds over time. We quantified a rate of antibody decay for 23 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) of 0.198 natural log units per month and 24 individuals of other bird species of 0.178 natural log units per month. Our results suggest that juveniles had a higher rate of antibody decay than adults, which is consistent with nonlinear antibody decay at different times postexposure. Overall, most birds had undetectable titers 2 yr postexposure. Nonuniform WNV antibody decay rates in free-ranging birds underscore the need for cautious interpretation of avian serology results in the context of arbovirus surveillance and epidemiology.
PMID: 25919465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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12. Zoonoses Public Health. 2015 Apr 27. doi: 10.1111/zph.12198. [Epub ahead of print]

Antimicrobial Resistance and Multilocus Sequence Types of Finnish Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Multiple Sources.

Olkkola S1, Nykäsenoja S, Raulo S, Llarena AK, Kovanen S, Kivistö R, Myllyniemi AL, Hänninen ML.
Author information:
Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Abstract

Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 805 domestic Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained from broilers (n = 459), bovines (n = 120), human patients (n = 95), natural waters (n = 80), wild birds (n = 35) and zoo animals/enclosures (n = 16) with known multilocus sequence types (MLST) for 450 isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for erythromycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin and the quinolones ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid were determined with the VetMIC method. MICs were compared with MLST types to find possible associations between sequence type and resistance. The proportions of resistant isolates were 5% (broilers), 6.3% (natural waters), 11.4% (wild birds), 11.6% (human patients), 16.7% (bovines) and 31.3% (zoo). The most common resistance among the human and bovine isolates was quinolone resistance alone while resistance to streptomycin alone was most often detected among the broiler isolates and tetracycline resistance was most commonly observed in the wild bird, water and zoo isolates. No or negligible resistance to erythromycin or gentamicin was detected. In all data, 12/26 of the tetracycline-resistant isolates were also resistant to streptomycin (P < 0.001) and the clonal complex (CC) ST-1034 CC showed a high proportion of 75% (9/12) of tetracycline-resistant isolates, most originating from the zoo and broilers with closely associated MLST types from these sources. No association between quinolone resistance and MLST type was seen. The low percentage of resistant isolates among the domestic Campylobacter infections is most probably due to the long-term controlled use of antimicrobials. However, the higher percentage of tetracycline resistance observed among the zoo isolates could present a risk for zoo visitors of acquisition of resistant C. jejuni. The resistance pattern of tetracycline and streptomycin most often found in ST-1034 CC could indicate a common resistance acquisition mechanism commonly present in this CC. Overall, MLST typing was found to be a useful method in recognition of potential genetic lineages associated with resistance.
© 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PMID: 25917650 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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13. Oecologia. 2015 Apr 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Laying date, incubation and egg breakage as determinants of bacterial load on bird eggshells: experimental evidence.

Soler JJ1, Ruiz-Rodríguez M, Martín-Vivaldi M, Peralta-Sánchez JM, Ruiz-Castellano C, Tomás G.
Author information:
Departamento de Ecología Funcional y Evolutiva, Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (CSIC), Ctra. Sacramento s/n, La Cañada de San Urbano, 04120, Almería, Spain, jsoler@eeza.csic.es.

Abstract

Exploring factors guiding interactions of bacterial communities with animals has become of primary importance for ecologists and evolutionary biologists during the last years because of their likely central role in the evolution of animal life history traits. We explored the association between laying date and eggshell bacterial load (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococci, and Enterococci) in natural and artificial magpie (Pica pica) nests containing fresh commercial quail (Coturnix coturnix) eggs. We manipulated hygiene conditions by spilling egg contents on magpie and artificial nests and explored experimental effects during the breeding season. Egg breakage is a common outcome of brood parasitism by great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) on the nests of magpie, one of its main hosts. We found that the treatment increased eggshell bacterial load in artificial nests, but not in magpie nests with incubating females, which suggests that parental activity prevents the proliferation of bacteria on the eggshells in relation to egg breakage. Moreover, laying date was positively related to eggshell bacterial load in active magpie nests, but negatively in artificial nests. The results suggest that variation in parental characteristics of magpies rather than climatic variation during the breeding season explained the detected positive association. Because the eggshell bacterial load is a proxy of hatching success, the detected positive association between eggshell bacterial loads and laying date in natural, but not in artificial nests, suggests that the generalized negative association between laying date and avian breeding success can be, at least partially, explained by differential bacterial effects.
PMID: 25912895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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14. Exp Anim. 2015 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Songbird: a unique animal model for studying the molecular basis of disorders of vocal development and communication.

Mori C1, Wada K.
Author information:
Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University.

Abstract

Like humans, songbirds are one of the few animal groups that learn vocalization. Vocal learning requires coordination of auditory input and vocal output using auditory feedback to guide one's own vocalizations during a specific developmental stage known as the critical period. Songbirds are good animal models for understand the neural basis of vocal learning, a complex form of imitation, because they have many parallels to humans with regard to the features of vocal behavior and neural circuits dedicated to vocal learning. In this review, we will summarize the behavioral, neural, and genetic traits of birdsong. We will also discuss how studies of birdsong can help us understand how the development of neural circuits for vocal learning and production is driven by sensory input (auditory information) and motor output (vocalization).
Free Article
PMID: 25912323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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15. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 16;111(50):17917-22. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1409913111. Epub 2014 Dec 2.

Regulatory modulation of the T-box gene Tbx5 links development, evolution, and adaptation of the sternum.

Bickley SR1, Logan MP2.
Author information:
  • 1Division of Developmental Biology, Medical Research Council-National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom; and.
  • 2Division of Developmental Biology, Medical Research Council-National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom; and Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, United Kingdom malcolm.logan@kcl.ac.uk.

  • Abstract

    The sternum bone lies at the ventral midline of the thorax where it provides a critical attachment for the pectoral muscles that allow the forelimbs to raise the body from the ground. Among tetrapods, sternum morphology is correlated with the mode of locomotion: Avians that fly have a ventral extension, or keel, on their sterna, which provides an increased area for flight muscle attachment. The sternum is fused with the ribs attaching on either side; however, unlike the ribs, the sternal precursors do not originate from the somites. Despite the crucial role of the sternum in tetrapod locomotion, little attention has been given to its acquisition, evolution, and embryological development. We demonstrate an essential role for the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx5 in sternum and forelimb formation and show that both structures share an embryological origin within the lateral plate mesoderm. Consistent with this shared origin and role of Tbx5, sternum defects are a characteristic feature of Holt-Oram Syndrome (OMIM 142900) caused by mutations in TBX5. We demonstrate a link between sternum size and forelimb use across avians and provide evidence that modulation of Tbx5 expression underlies the reduction in sternum and wing size in a flightless bird, the emu. We demonstrate that Tbx5 is a common node in the genetic pathways regulating forelimb and sternum development, enabling specific adaptations of these features without affecting other skeletal elements and can also explain the linked adaptation of sternum and forelimb morphology correlated with mode of locomotion.
    PMCID: PMC4273354 Free PMC Article
    PMID: 25468972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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    16. Toxicol Lett. 2015 Jan 22;232(2):363-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.11.022. Epub 2014 Nov 22.

    Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in birds under environmentally realistic exposure conditions and development of a kinetic predictive model.

    Tarazona JV1, Rodríguez C2, Alonso E1, Sáez M3, González F4, San Andrés MD4, Jiménez B3, San Andrés MI4.
    Author information:
    Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, INIA, Madrid, Spain.
    Toxicology and Pharmacology Department, Veterinary Faculty, UCM, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: rodfermc@vet.ucm.es.
    Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Spanish National Research Council (IQOG-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Toxicology and Pharmacology Department, Veterinary Faculty, UCM, Madrid, Spain.

    Abstract

    This article describes the toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in birds under low repeated dosing, equivalent to 0.085 μg/kg per day, representing environmentally realistic exposure conditions. The best fitting was provided by a simple pseudo monocompartmental first-order kinetics model, regulated by two rates, with a pseudo first-order dissipation half-life of 230 days, accounting for real elimination as well as binding of PFOS to non-exchangeable structures. The calculated assimilation efficiency was 0.66 with confidence intervals of 0.64 and 0.68. The model calculations confirmed that the measured maximum concentrations were still far from the steady state situation, which for this dose regime, was estimated at a value of about 65 μg PFOS/L serum achieved after a theoretical 210 weeks continuous exposure. The results confirm a very different kinetics than that observed in single-dose experiments confirming clear dose-related differences in apparent elimination rates in birds, as described for humans and monkeys; suggesting that a capacity-limited saturable process should also be considered in the kinetic behavior of PFOS in birds. Pseudo first-order kinetic models are highly convenient and frequently used for predicting bioaccumulation of chemicals in livestock and wildlife; the study suggests that previous bioaccumulation models using half-lives obtained at high doses are expected to underestimate the biomagnification potential of PFOS. The toxicokinetic parameters presented here can be used for higher-tier bioaccumulation estimations of PFOS in chickens and as surrogate values for modeling PFOS kinetics in wild bird species.
    Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    PMID: 25445721 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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    17. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 7;111(40):14553-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412109111. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

    Statistical learning of recurring sound patterns encodes auditory objects in songbird forebrain.

    Lu K1, Vicario DS2.
    Author information:
  • 1Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740; and.
  • 2Psychology Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 vicario@rci.rutgers.edu.

  • Abstract

    Auditory neurophysiology has demonstrated how basic acoustic features are mapped in the brain, but it is still not clear how multiple sound components are integrated over time and recognized as an object. We investigated the role of statistical learning in encoding the sequential features of complex sounds by recording neuronal responses bilaterally in the auditory forebrain of awake songbirds that were passively exposed to long sound streams. These streams contained sequential regularities, and were similar to streams used in human infants to demonstrate statistical learning for speech sounds. For stimulus patterns with contiguous transitions and with nonadjacent elements, single and multiunit responses reflected neuronal discrimination of the familiar patterns from novel patterns. In addition, discrimination of nonadjacent patterns was stronger in the right hemisphere than in the left, and may reflect an effect of top-down modulation that is lateralized. Responses to recurring patterns showed stimulus-specific adaptation, a sparsening of neural activity that may contribute to encoding invariants in the sound stream and that appears to increase coding efficiency for the familiar stimuli across the population of neurons recorded. As auditory information about the world must be received serially over time, recognition of complex auditory objects may depend on this type of mnemonic process to create and differentiate representations of recently heard sounds.
    PMCID: PMC4210023 Free PMC Article
    PMID: 25246563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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