Search birdRS Box

Search birdRS blog posts

Browse the Blog Posts

Or scan through the blog archive below for items of interest as only the latest post is shown below, thanks.

Wednesday, 11 February 2015

What's new for 'birdRS' in PubMed. February 2015, Week 1

This message contains My NCBI what's new results from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM).

View complete results in PubMed (results may change over time).

PubMed Results

1. J Exp Biol. 2015 Feb 5. pii: jeb.113639. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of signal features and background noise on distance cue discrimination by a songbird.

Pohl NU1, Klump GM1, Langemann U2.


During the transmission of acoustic signals, the spectral and temporal properties of the original signal are degraded and with increasing distance more and more echo patterns are imposed. It is well known that these physical alterations provide useful cues to assess the distance of a sound source. Previous studies in birds have shown that birds employ the degree of degradation of a signal to estimate the distance of another singing male (referred to as ranging). Little is known about how acoustic masking by background noise interferes with ranging and whether the number of song elements and stimulus familiarity affect the ability to discriminate between degraded and undegraded signals. In this study we trained great tits (Parus major L.) to discriminate between signal variants in two background types, a silent condition and a condition consisting of a natural dawn chorus. We manipulated great tit song types to simulate patterns of reverberation and degradation equivalent to transmission distances of between 5 and 160 m. The birds' responses were significantly affected by the differences between the signal variants and by background type. In contrast, stimulus familiarity or their element number had no significant effect on signal discrimination. Although background type was a significant main effect with respect to the response latencies, the great tits' overall performance in the noisy dawn chorus was similar to the performance in silence.
PMID: 25657204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Mol Ecol Resour. 2015 Feb 5. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12384. [Epub ahead of print]

DNA barcoding and mini-barcoding as a powerful tool for feather mite studies.

Doña J1, Diaz-Real J, Mironov S, Bazaga P, Serrano D, Jovani R.


Feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea) are among the most abundantand commonly occurring bird ectosymbionts. Basic questions on the ecology and evolution of feather mites remain unanswered because feather mite species identification is often only possible for adult males and it is laborious even for specialised taxonomists, thus precluding large-scale identifications. Here, we tested DNA barcoding as a useful molecular tool to identify feather mites from passerine birds. 361 specimens of 72 species of feather mites from 68 species of European passerine birds from Russia and Spain were barcoded. The accuracy of barcoding and mini-barcoding was tested. Moreover, threshold choice (a controversial issue in barcoding studies) was also explored in a new way, by calculating through simulations the effect of sampling effort (in species number and species composition) on threshold calculations. We found one 200 bp mini-barcode region that showed the same accuracy as the full-length barcode (602 bp) and was surrounded by conserved regions potentially useful for group-specific degenerate primers. Species identification accuracy was perfect (100%) but decreased when singletons or species of the Proctophyllodes pinnatus group were included. In fact, barcoding confirmed previous taxonomic issues within the Proctophyllodes pinnatus group. Following an integrative taxonomy approach, we compared our barcode study with previous taxonomic knowledge on feather mites, discovering three new putative cryptic species and validating three previous morphologically different (but still undescribed) new species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25655349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3. PeerJ. 2015 Jan 15;3:e726. doi: 10.7717/peerj.726. eCollection 2015.

Changes in the timing of departure and arrival of Irish migrant waterbirds.

Donnelly A1, Geyer H2, Yu R3.


There have been many recent reports across Europe and North America of a change in the timing of arrival and departure of a range of migrant bird species to their breeding grounds. These studies have focused primarily on passerine birds and climate warming has been found to be one of the main drivers of earlier arrival and departure in spring. In Ireland, rising spring temperature has been shown to result in the earlier arrival of sub-Saharan passerine species and the early departure of the Whooper Swan. In order to investigate changes in spring arrival and departure dates of waterbirds to Ireland, we extracted latest dates as an indicator of the timing of departure of winter visitors (24 species) and earliest dates as an indicator of the timing of arrival of spring/summer migrants (2 species) from BirdWatch Ireland's East Coast Bird reports (1980-2003). Three of the winter visitors showed evidence of later departure and one of earlier departure whereas one of the spring/summer visitors showed evidence of earlier arrival. In order to determine any influence of local temperature on these trends, we analysed data from two synoptic weather stations within the study area and found that spring (average February, March and April) air temperature significantly (P < 0.05) increased at a rate of 0.03 °C per year, which was strongly correlated with changes in latest and earliest records. We also tested the sensitivity of bird departure/arrival to temperature and found that Northern Pintail would leave 10 days earlier in response to a 1 °C increase in spring temperature. In addition, we investigated the impact of a large-scale circulation pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on the timing of arrival and departure which correlated with both advances and delays in departure and arrival. We conclude that the impact of climate change on earliest and latest records of these birds is, as expected, species specific and that local temperature had less of an influence than large-scale circulation patterns.
Free Article
PMID: 25653907 [PubMed]

Icon for PeerJ, Inc.

4. Proc Biol Sci. 2015 Mar 7;282(1802). pii: 20142350. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.2350.

Experimental manipulation of avian social structure reveals segregation is carried over across contexts.

Firth JA1, Sheldon BC2.


Our current understanding of animal social networks is largely based on observations or experiments that do not directly manipulate associations between individuals. Consequently, evidence relating to the causal processes underlying such networks is limited. By imposing specified rules controlling individual access to feeding stations, we directly manipulated the foraging social network of a wild bird community, thus demonstrating how external factors can shape social structure. We show that experimentally imposed constraints were carried over into patterns of association at unrestricted, ephemeral food patches, as well as at nesting sites during breeding territory prospecting. Hence, different social contexts can be causally linked, and constraints at one level may have consequences that extend into other aspects of sociality. Finally, the imposed assortment was lost following the cessation of the experimental manipulation, indicating the potential for previously perturbed social networks of wild animals to recover from segregation driven by external constraints.
Free Article
PMID: 25652839 [PubMed - in process]

Icon for HighWire

5. J Comp Physiol B. 2015 Feb 5. [Epub ahead of print]

Monoterpenes as inhibitors of digestive enzymes and counter-adaptations in a specialist avian herbivore.

Kohl KD1, Pitman E, Robb BC, Connelly JW, Dearing MD, Forbey JS.


Many plants produce plant secondary metabolites (PSM) that inhibit digestive enzymes of herbivores, thus limiting nutrient availability. In response, some specialist herbivores have evolved digestive enzymes that are resistant to inhibition. Monoterpenes, a class of PSMs, have not been investigated with respect to the interference of specific digestive enzymes, nor have such interactions been studied in avian herbivores. We investigated this interaction in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Phasianidae: Centrocercus urophasianus), which specializes on monoterpene-rich sagebrush species (Artemisia spp.). We first measured the monoterpene concentrations in gut contents of free-ranging sage-grouse. Next, we compared the ability of seven individual monoterpenes present in sagebrush to inhibit a protein-digesting enzyme, aminopeptidase-N. We also measured the inhibitory effects of PSM extracts from two sagebrush species. Inhibition of aminopeptidase-N in sage-grouse was compared to inhibition in chickens (Gallus gallus). We predicted that sage-grouse enzymes would retain higher activity when incubated with isolated monoterpenes or sagebrush extracts than chicken enzymes. We detected unchanged monoterpenes in the gut contents of free-ranging sage-grouse. We found that three isolated oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, camphor, and 1,8-cineole) inhibited digestive enzymes of both bird species. Camphor and 1,8-cineole inhibited enzymes from chickens more than from sage-grouse. Extracts from both species of sagebrush had similar inhibition of chicken enzymes, but did not inhibit sage-grouse enzymes. These results suggest that specific monoterpenes may limit the protein digestibility of plant material by avian herbivores. Further, this work presents additional evidence that adaptations of digestive enzymes to plant defensive compounds may be a trait of specialist herbivores.
PMID: 25652583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Icon for Springer

6. Biol Lett. 2015 Feb;11(2). pii: 20140754. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2014.0754.

Approaching birds with drones: first experiments and ethical guidelines.

Vas E1, Lescroël A2, Duriez O2, Boguszewski G3, Grémillet D4.


Unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly called drones, are being increasingly used in ecological research, in particular to approach sensitive wildlife in inaccessible areas. Impact studies leading to recommendations for best practices are urgently needed. We tested the impact of drone colour, speed and flight angle on the behavioural responses of mallards Anas platyrhynchos in a semi-captive situation, and of wild flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) and common greenshanks (Tringa nebularia) in a wetland area. We performed 204 approach flights with a quadricopter drone, and during 80% of those we could approach unaffected birds to within 4 m. Approach speed, drone colour and repeated flights had no measurable impact on bird behaviour, yet they reacted more to drones approaching vertically. We recommend launching drones farther than 100 m from the birds and adjusting approach distance according to species. Our study is a first step towards a sound use of drones for wildlife research. Further studies should assess the impacts of different drones on other taxa, and monitor physiological indicators of stress in animals exposed to drones according to group sizes and reproductive status.
© 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25652220 [PubMed - in process]

Icon for HighWire

7. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015 Feb 4. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12330. [Epub ahead of print]

Outbreaks of Pox Disease Due to Canarypox-Like and Fowlpox-Like Viruses in Large-Scale Houbara Bustard Captive-Breeding Programmes, in Morocco and the United Arab Emirates.

Le Loc'h G1, Paul MC, Camus-Bouclainville C, Bertagnoli S.


Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of reinforcement programmes of endangered species. Houbara Bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years in North Africa and the Middle East. Field observations show that pox disease, caused by avipoxviruses (APV), regularly emerges in conservation projects of Houbara Bustard, despite a very strict implementation of both vaccination and biosecurity. Data collected from captive flocks of Houbara Bustard in Morocco from 2006 through 2013 and in the United Arab Emirates from 2011 through 2013 were analysed, and molecular investigations were carried out to define the virus strains involved. Pox cases (n = 2311) were observed during more than half of the year (88% of the months in Morocco, 54% in the United Arab Emirates). Monthly morbidity rates showed strong variations across the time periods considered, species and study sites: Four outbreaks were described during the study period on both sites. Molecular typing revealed that infections were mostly due to canarypox-like viruses in Morocco while fowlpox-like viruses were predominant in the United Arab Emirates. This study highlights that APV remain a major threat to consider in bird conservation initiatives.
© 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PMID: 25651753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

8. Int J Biometeorol. 2015 Feb 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens.

Najafi P1, Zulkifli I, Amat Jajuli N, Farjam AS, Ramiah SK, Amir AA, O'Reily E, Eckersall D.


An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.
PMID: 25649005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Icon for Springer

9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 2. pii: 201413589. [Epub ahead of print]

Matching times of leading and following suggest cooperation through direct reciprocity during V-formation flight in ibis.

Voelkl B1, Portugal SJ2, Unsöld M3, Usherwood JR2, Wilson AM2, Fritz J4.


One conspicuous feature of several larger bird species is their annual migration in V-shaped or echelon formation. When birds are flying in these formations, energy savings can be achieved by using the aerodynamic up-wash produced by the preceding bird. As the leading bird in a formation cannot profit from this up-wash, a social dilemma arises around the question of who is going to fly in front? To investigate how this dilemma is solved, we studied the flight behavior of a flock of juvenile Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) during a human-guided autumn migration. We could show that the amount of time a bird is leading a formation is strongly correlated with the time it can itself profit from flying in the wake of another bird. On the dyadic level, birds match the time they spend in the wake of each other by frequent pairwise switches of the leading position. Taken together, these results suggest that bald ibis cooperate by directly taking turns in leading a formation. On the proximate level, we propose that it is mainly the high number of iterations and the immediacy of reciprocation opportunities that favor direct reciprocation. Finally, we found evidence that the animals' propensity to reciprocate in leading has a substantial influence on the size and cohesion of the flight formations.
Free Article
PMID: 25646487 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Icon for HighWire

10. Evolution. 2015 Jan 31. doi: 10.1111/evo.12610. [Epub ahead of print]

Islands within an island: Repeated adaptive divergence in a single population.

Langin KM1, Sillett TS, Funk WC, Morrison SA, Desrosiers MA, Ghalambor CK.


Physical barriers to gene flow were once viewed as prerequisites for adaptive evolutionary divergence. However, a growing body of theoretical and empirical work suggests that divergence can proceed within a single population. Here we document genetic structure and spatially-replicated patterns of phenotypic divergence within a bird species endemic to 250 km2 Santa Cruz Island, California, USA. Island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis) in three separate stands of pine habitat had longer, shallower bills than jays in oak habitat, a pattern that mirrors adaptive differences between allopatric populations of the species' mainland congener. Variation in both bill measurements was heritable, and island scrub-jays mated non-randomly with respect to bill morphology. The population was not panmictic; instead, we found a continuous pattern of isolation by distance across the east-west axis of the island, as well as a subtle genetic discontinuity across the boundary between the largest pine stand and adjacent oak habitat. The ecological factors that appear to have facilitated adaptive differentiation at such a fine scale-environmental heterogeneity and localized dispersal-are ubiquitous in nature. These findings support recent arguments that microgeographic patterns of adaptive divergence may be more common than currently appreciated, even in mobile taxonomic groups like birds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25645813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

11. BMC Res Notes. 2015 Feb 2;8(1):1. [Epub ahead of print]

Faeco-prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in urban wild birds and pets in New Zealand.

Mohan V.



Greater attention has been given to Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) prevalence in poultry and ruminants as they are regarded as the major contributing reservoirs of human campylobacteriosis. However, relatively little work has been done to assess the prevalence in urban wild birds and pets in New Zealand, a country with the highest campylobacteriosis notification rates. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the faeco-prevalence of C. jejuni in urban wild birds and pets and its temporal trend in the Manawatu region of New Zealand.


A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2008 to July 2009, where faecal samples were collected from 906 ducks, 835 starlings, 23 Canadian goose, 2 swans, 2 pied stilts, 498 dogs and 82 cats. The faeco-prevalence of C. jejuni was 20% in ducks, 18% in starlings, 9% in Canadian goose, 5% in dogs and 7% in cats. The faeco-prevalence of C. jejuni was relatively higher during warmer months of the year in ducks, starlings and dogs while starlings showed increased winter prevalence. No such trend could be assessed in Canadian goose, swans, pied stilts and cats as samples could not be collected for the entire study period from these species.


This study estimated the faeco-prevalence of C. jejuni in different animal species where the prevalence was relatively high during warmer months in general. However, there was relative increase in winter prevalence in starlings. The urban wild bird species and pets may be considered potential risk factors for human campylobacteriosis in New Zealand, particularly in small children.
Free Article
PMID: 25645429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Related citations
Icon for BioMed Central

12. Curr Opin Virol. 2015 Jan 30;10C:63-69. doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2015.01.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Cross-species transmission and emergence of novel viruses from birds.

Chan JF1, To KK1, Chen H1, Yuen KY2.


Birds, the only living member of the Dinosauria clade, are flying warm-blooded vertebrates displaying high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system. Birds provide the natural reservoir for numerous viral species and therefore gene source for evolution, emergence and dissemination of novel viruses. The intrusions of human into natural habitats of wild birds, the domestication of wild birds as pets or racing birds, and the increasing poultry consumption by human have facilitated avian viruses to cross species barriers to cause zoonosis. Recently, a novel adenovirus was exclusively found in birds causing an outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci infection among birds and humans. Instead of being the primary cause of an outbreak by jumping directly from bird to human, a novel avian virus can be an augmenter of another zoonotic agent causing the outbreak. A comprehensive avian virome will improve our understanding of birds' evolutionary dynamics.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25644327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Icon for Elsevier Science

13. Zoonoses Public Health. 2015 Jan 22. doi: 10.1111/zph.12180. [Epub ahead of print]

Rickettsial Infection in Animals, Humans and Ticks in Paulicéia, Brazil.

Silveira I1, Martins TF, Olegário MM, Peterka C, Guedes E, Ferreira F, Labruna MB.


A previous study in Paulicéia Municipality, south-eastern Brazil, reported 9.7% of the Amblyomma triste ticks to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri, a bacterial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans. These A. triste ticks were shown to be associated with marsh areas, where the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus is a primary host for this tick species. During 2008-2009, blood serum samples were collected from 140 horses, 41 dogs, 5 opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and 26 humans in farms from Pauliceia Municipality. Ticks were collected from these animals, from vegetation and from additional wildlife in these farms. Overall, 25% (35/140) of the horses, 7.3% (3/41) of the dogs, 3.8% (1/26) of the humans and 100% (5/5) of the opossums were seroreactive (titre ≥64) to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that horses that were allowed to forage in the marsh were 4.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp than horses that did not forage in the marsh. In addition, horses that had been living in the farm for more than 8.5 years were 2.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to SFG Rickettsia spp than horses that were living for ≤8.5 years. Ticks collected from domestic animals or from vegetation included Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus. By PCR analyses, only one pool of A. coelebs ticks from the vegetation was shown to be infected by rickettsiae, for which DNA sequencing revealed to be Rickettsia amblyommii. Ticks (not tested by PCR) collected from wildlife encompassed A. cajennense and Amblyomma rotundatum on lizards (Tupinambis sp), and A. cajennense and A. triste on the bird Laterallus viridis. Our results indicate that the marsh area of Paulicéia offers risks of infection by SFG rickettsiae.
© 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PMID: 25643912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Icon for Blackwell Publishing

14. Anat Histol Embryol. 2015 Jan 30. doi: 10.1111/ahe.12172. [Epub ahead of print]

Macroanatomical Aspects of the Lumbar Plexus and its Branches in the Sparrowhawk.

Balkaya H1, Ozudogru Z.


This study examined the plexus lumbalis and its branches in the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus). Fifteen sparrowhawks were used in this study. After administering an anaesthetic to the birds, the body cavities were opened. The birds were fixed with formaldehyde after draining of the blood. The nerves of the plexus lumbalis were dissected separately and photographed. The plexus lumbalis was formed by the union of the branches of the synsacral spinal nerves, which left from the ventrolaterale of os lumbosacrale. The plexus consisted of three (2nd, 3rd and 4th) synsacral spinal nerves. The cranial and caudal nerves originating from the plexus lumbalis were the nervus cutaneous femoris, nervus coxalis cranialis, nervus femoralis, nervus saphenus and nervus obturatorius. The general macroanatomical shape of the plexus lumbalis and the distribution of the nerves originating from this plexus were similar to those of other bird species.
© 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
PMID: 25641670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Icon for Blackwell Publishing

15. Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jan 10. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12857. [Epub ahead of print]

Patterns of bird migration phenology in South Africa suggest northern hemisphere climate as the most consistent driver of change.

Bussière EM1, Underhill LG, Altwegg R.


Current knowledge of phenological shifts in bird migration is largely based on data collected on Palearctic migrants at their breeding grounds; little is known about the phenology of these birds at their non-breeding grounds, and even less about that of intra-African migrants. Because climate change patterns are not uniform across the globe, we can expect regional disparities in bird phenological responses. It is also likely that they vary across species, since species show differences in the strength of affinities they have with particular habitats and environments. Here, we examine the arrival and departure of nine Palearctic and seven intra-African migratory species in the central Highveld of South Africa, where the former spend their non-breeding season and the latter their breeding season. Using novel analytical methods based on bird atlas data, we show phenological shifts in migration of five species - red-backed shrike, spotted flycatcher, common sandpiper, white-winged tern (Palearctic migrants) and diederick cuckoo (intra-African migrant) - between two atlas periods: 1987-1991 and 2007-2012. During this time period, Palearctic migrants advanced their departure from their South African non-breeding grounds. This trend was mainly driven by waterbirds. No consistent changes were observed for intra-African migrants. Our results suggest that the most consistent drivers of migration phenological shifts act in the northern hemisphere, probably at the breeding grounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25640890 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Icon for John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

16. J Anim Ecol. 2015 Jan 31. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12341. [Epub ahead of print]

Ecological opportunity leads to the emergence of an alternative behavioural phenotype in a tropical bird.

Touchton JM1, Wikelski M.


Loss of a dominant competitor can open ecological opportunities. Ecological opportunities are considered prerequisites for adaptive radiations. Nonetheless, initiation of diversification in response to ecological opportunity is seldom observed, so we know little about the stages by which behavioural variation either increases or coalesces into distinct phenotypes. Here, a natural experiment showed that in a tropical island's guild of army-ant following birds, a new behavioural phenotype emerged in subordinate spotted antbirds (Hylophylax naevioides) after the socially dominant ocellated antbird (Phaenostictus mcleannani) died out. Individuals with this behavioural phenotype are less territorial; instead, they roam in search of ant swarms where they feed in locations from which dominant competitors formerly excluded them. Roaming individuals fledge more young than territorial individuals. We conclude that ecological opportunity arising from species loss may enhance the success of alternative behavioural phenotypes and can favour further intraspecific diversification in life-history traits in surviving species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25640464 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Icon for Blackwell Publishing

No comments:

Post a comment