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Monday, 24 November 2014

What's new for 'birdRS' in PubMed: November Week 3, 2014

This message contains My NCBI what's new results from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Bird research this week on PubMed

View complete results in PubMed (results may change over time).

PubMed Results
Items 1 - 9 of 9

1. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Nov 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Potential Use of Caprylic Acid in Broiler Chickens: Effect on Salmonella Enteritidis.

Skřivanová E1, Hovorková P, Cermák L, Marounek M.
Author information:
11 Institute of Animal Science , Department of Physiology of Nutrition and Quality of Animal Products, Prague, Czech Republic .


Abstract The effect of dietary caprylic acid (CA) on Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as the surface treatment of chicken skin contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. To evaluate the dietary effect of CA on Salmonella Enteritidis, the individually housed broiler chickens (n=48) were divided into 4 groups (positive control, negative control, 2.5 g/kg of CA in the feed, and 5 g/kg of CA in the feed). The feed of all groups, except the negative control, was artificially contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (107 colony-forming units/100 g of feed). Both concentrations of dietary CA significantly decreased counts of Salmonella Enteritidis in the crop and cecum of experimental chickens (p<0.05). The effect of CA in the crop contents was more pronounced than in the cecum. Surface treatment of chilled chicken halves with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL significantly decreased Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation of the skin and meat showed that treatment of the skin with 1.25 mg/mL of CA worsened odor and appearance of the chicken skin, while sensory traits of chicken meat were not significantly affected. Taste and overall acceptability was not influenced by CA in both meat and skin. Treatment of the skin with 2.5 mg/mL of CA resulted in more pronounced changes of the skin odor and appearance. In conclusion, dietary CA reduced carriage of Salmonella Enteritidis in chickens, whereas surface-treatment reduced or eliminated Salmonella Enteritidis contamination in the processed bird.
PMID: 25407657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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2. Parasite. 2014;21:62. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the Zoo of Clères, France.

Rigoulet J1, Hennache A1, Lagourette P2, George C2, Longeart L2, Le Net JL2, Dubey JP3.
Author information:
1Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Département des Jardins Botaniques et Zoologiques, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France.
2Laboratoire Anatomo-Pathologique Vétérinaire, BP 303, 37403 Amboise, France.
3United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA.


Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunostaining with polyclonal rabbit T. gondii antibodies and by transmission electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the bar-shouldered dove is a new host record for T. gondii.
© J. Rigoulet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.
Free Article
PMID: 25407506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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3. J Evol Biol. 2014 Nov 18. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12527. [Epub ahead of print]

Symbiotic bacteria enable olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) to exploit intractable sources of nitrogen.

Ben-Yosef M1, Pasternak Z, Jurkevitch E, Yuval B.
Author information:
1Department of Entomology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.


Insects are often associated with symbiotic micro-organisms, which allow them to utilize nutritionally marginal diets. Adult fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) associate with extracellular bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) that inhabit their digestive tract. These flies obtain nutrients by foraging for plant exudates, honeydew and bird droppings scattered on leaves and fruit - a nutritional niche which offers ample amounts of carbohydrates, but low quantities of available nitrogen. We identified the bacteria resident in the gut of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) - a worldwide pest of olives and examined their contribution to nitrogen metabolism in the adult insect. By suppressing bacteria in the gut and monitoring female fecundity, we demonstrate that bacteria contribute essential amino acids and metabolize urea into an available nitrogen source for the fly, thus significantly elevating egg production. In an ecological context, bacteria were found to be beneficial to females subsisting on bird droppings, but not on honeydew - two natural food sources. We suggest that a main gut bacterium (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola) forms an inseparable, essential part of this fly's nutritional ecology. The evolution of this symbiosis has allowed adult flies to utilize food substrates which are low or imbalanced in assimilable nitrogen and thereby to overcome the nitrogen limitations of their natural diet.
© 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
PMID: 25403559 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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4. Oecologia. 2014 Sep;176(1):139-47. doi: 10.1007/s00442-014-3013-8. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Generalist birds govern the seed dispersal of a parasitic plant with strong recruitment constraints.

Mellado A1, Zamora R.
Author information:
1Department of Ecology, Terrestrial Ecology Research Group, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071, Granada, Spain,


Mistletoes constitute instructive study cases with which to address the role of generalist consumers in the study of plant-animal interactions. Their ranges of safe sites for recruitment are among the most restricted of any plant; therefore, frugivores specializing in mistletoe have been considered almost indispensable for the seed dispersal of these parasitic plants. However, the absence of such specialists in numerous regions inhabited by many mistletoe species raises the question of whether unspecialized vectors may successfully disperse mistletoe seeds to narrowly defined safe sites. Using the European mistletoe Viscum album subsp. austriacum as a study case, we recorded a broad range of 11 bird species that disperse mistletoe seeds. For these species, we studied the mistletoe-visitation rate and feeding behavior to estimate the quantity component of dispersal effectiveness, and the post-foraging microhabitat use, seed handling, and recruitment probabilities of different microhabitats as a measure of the quality component of effectiveness. Both endozoochory and ectozoochory are valid dispersal mechanisms, as the seeds do not need to be ingested to germinate, increasing seed-dispersal versatility. Thrushes were the most effective dispersers, although they were rather inefficient, whereas small birds (both frugivores and non-frugivores) offered low-quantity but high-quality services for depositing seeds directly upon safe sites. As birds behave similarly on parasitized and non-parasitized hosts, and vectors have broad home ranges, reinfection within patches and the colonization of new patches are ensured by an ample assemblage of generalist birds. Thus, a parasitic plant requiring precision in seed dispersal can rely on unspecialized dispersers.
PMID: 25004870 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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5. Oecologia. 2014 Sep;176(1):259-71. doi: 10.1007/s00442-014-3001-z. Epub 2014 Jun 29.

Dung beetles in an avian-dominated island ecosystem: feeding and trophic ecology.

Stavert JR1, Gaskett AC, Scott DJ, Beggs JR.
Author information:
1School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand,


Globally, dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are linked to many critical ecosystem processes involving the consumption and breakdown of mammal dung. Endemic New Zealand dung beetles (Canthonini) are an anomaly, occurring at high abundance and low diversity on an island archipelago historically lacking terrestrial mammals, except bats, and instead dominated by birds. Have New Zealand's dung beetles evolved to specialise on bird dung or carrion, or have they become broad generalist feeders? We test dietary preferences by analysing nitrogen isotope ratios of wild dung beetles and by performing feeding behaviour observations of captive specimens. We also use nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes to determine if the dung beetle Saphobius edwardsi will consume marine-derived carrion. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated trophic generalism in Saphobius dung beetles and this was supported by behavioural observations where a broad range of food resources were utilised. Alternative food resource use was further illustrated experimentally by nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures of S. edwardsi, where individuals provided with decomposed squid had δ(15)N and δ(13)C values that had shifted toward values associated with marine diet. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of native mammal dung resources, New Zealand dung beetles have evolved a generalist diet of dung and carrion. This may include marine-derived resources, as provided by the seabird colonies present in New Zealand forests before the arrival of humans. This has probably enabled New Zealand dung beetles to persist in indigenous ecosystems despite the decline of native birds and the introduction of many mammal species.
PMID: 24974270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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6. Environ Manage. 2014 May;53(5):999-1004. doi: 10.1007/s00267-014-0256-4. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Pro-environmental beach driving is uncommon and ineffective in reducing disturbance to beach-dwelling birds.

Weston MA1, Schlacher TA, Lynn D.
Author information:
1Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC, 3125, Australia,


Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended (P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.
PMID: 24599507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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7. Environ Manage. 2014 May;53(5):1005-14. doi: 10.1007/s00267-014-0253-7. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park.

Huhta E1, Sulkava P.
Author information:
1Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, 96301, Rovaniemi, Finland,


Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.
PMID: 24556796 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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