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Monday, 14 July 2014

Bird research this week on PubMed: July 2014 Week 2

PubMed listing for 'bird' OR 'songbird' excluding references to influenza and flu - July 2014 Week 2

1. J Environ Manage. 2014 Jul 8;144C:322-335. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.05.036. [Epub ahead of print]

Metrics to assess ecological condition, change, and impacts in sandy beach ecosystems.

Schlacher TA1, Schoeman DS2, Jones AR3, Dugan JE4, Hubbard DM5, Defeo O6, Peterson CH7, Weston MA8, Maslo B9, Olds AD10, Scapini F11, Nel R12, Harris LR13, Lucrezi S14, Lastra M15, Huijbers CM16, Connolly RM17.Author information:
1School of Science and Engineering, The University of the Sunshine Coast, Q-4558 Maroochydore, Australia. Electronic address:
2School of Science and Engineering, The University of the Sunshine Coast, Q-4558 Maroochydore, Australia. Electronic address:
3Division of Invertebrates, The Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia. Electronic address:
4Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-6150, USA. Electronic address:
5Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-6150, USA. Electronic address:
6UNDECIMAR, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, PO Box 10773, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:
7Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Morehead City, NC 28557, USA. Electronic address:
8Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia. Electronic address:
9Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. Electronic address:
10School of Science and Engineering, The University of the Sunshine Coast, Q-4558 Maroochydore, Australia. Electronic address:
11Department of Biology, University of Florence, via Romana 17, 50125 Firenze, Italy. Electronic address:
12Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South Africa. Electronic address:
13Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South Africa. Electronic address:
14TREES-Tourism Research in Economic Environs and Society, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Electronic address:
15Department of Ecology and Animal Biology, Faculty of Marine Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain. Electronic address:
16Australian Rivers Institute, Coast and Estuaries, and School of Environment, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland, 4222, Australia. Electronic address:
17Australian Rivers Institute, Coast and Estuaries, and School of Environment, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland, 4222, Australia. Electronic address:


Complexity is increasingly the hallmark in environmental management practices of sandy shorelines. This arises primarily from meeting growing public demands (e.g., real estate, recreation) whilst reconciling economic demands with expectations of coastal users who have modern conservation ethics. Ideally, shoreline management is underpinned by empirical data, but selecting ecologically-meaningful metrics to accurately measure the condition of systems, and the ecological effects of human activities, is a complex task. Here we construct a framework for metric selection, considering six categories of issues that authorities commonly address: erosion; habitat loss; recreation; fishing; pollution (litter and chemical contaminants); and wildlife conservation. Possible metrics were scored in terms of their ability to reflect environmental change, and against criteria that are widely used for judging the performance of ecological indicators (i.e., sensitivity, practicability, costs, and public appeal). From this analysis, four types of broadly applicable metrics that also performed very well against the indicator criteria emerged: 1.) traits of bird populations and assemblages (e.g., abundance, diversity, distributions, habitat use); 2.) breeding/reproductive performance sensu lato (especially relevant for birds and turtles nesting on beaches and in dunes, but equally applicable to invertebrates and plants); 3.) population parameters and distributions of vertebrates associated primarily with dunes and the supralittoral beach zone (traditionally focused on birds and turtles, but expandable to mammals); 4.) compound measurements of the abundance/cover/biomass of biota (plants, invertebrates, vertebrates) at both the population and assemblage level. Local constraints (i.e., the absence of birds in highly degraded urban settings or lack of dunes on bluff-backed beaches) and particular issues may require alternatives. Metrics - if selected and applied correctly - provide empirical evidence of environmental condition and change, but often do not reflect deeper environmental values per se. Yet, values remain poorly articulated for many beach systems; this calls for a comprehensive identification of environmental values and the development of targeted programs to conserve these values on sandy shorelines globally.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25014753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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2. Int J Parasitol. 2014 Jul 8. pii: S0020-7519(14)00146-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.04.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Distribution, diversity and drivers of blood-borne parasite co-infections in Alaskan bird populations.

Oakgrove KS1, Harrigan RJ2, Loiseau C3, Guers S4, Seppi B5, Sehgal RN3.Author information:
1Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California, 94132, USA. Electronic address:
2Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, California, 90095, USA.
3Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California, 94132, USA.
4Alaska Songbird Institute, PO Box 82035, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99708, USA.
5Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage Field Office, 4700 BLM Road, Anchorage, Alaska, 99507, USA.


Avian species are commonly infected by multiple parasites, however few studies have investigated the environmental determinants of the prevalence of co-infection over a large scale. Here we believe that we report the first, detailed ecological study of the prevalence, diversity and co-infections of four avian blood-borne parasite genera: Plasmodium spp., Haemoproteus spp., Leucocytozoon spp. and Trypanosoma spp. We collected blood samples from 47 resident and migratory bird species across a latitudinal gradient in Alaska. From the patterns observed at collection sites, random forest models were used to provide evidence of associations between bioclimatic conditions and the prevalence of parasite co-infection distribution. Molecular screening revealed a higher prevalence of haematozoa (53%) in Alaska than previously reported. Leucocytozoons had the highest diversity, prevalence and prevalence of co-infection. Leucocytozoon prevalence (35%) positively correlated with Trypanosoma prevalence (11%), negatively correlated with Haemoproteus prevalence (14%) and had no correlation with Plasmodium prevalence (7%). We found temperature, precipitation and tree cover to be the primary environmental drivers that show a relationship with the prevalence of co-infection. The results provide insight into the impacts of bioclimatic drivers on parasite ecology and intra-host interactions, and have implications for the study of infectious diseases in rapidly changing environments.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
PMID: 25014331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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3. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014 Jul 10;10(1):55. [Epub ahead of print]

Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil.

Galvagne Loss AT, Costa Neto EM, Machado CG, Flores FM.



Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology.


This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests.


We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin's principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form ("passaro" in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species.


The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community.
PMID: 25012812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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4. J Integr Neurosci. 2014 Apr;13(2):229-52. doi: 10.1142/S0219635214400093.

Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness.

Hameroff SR1, Craddock TJ, Tuszynski JA.Author information:
1Center for Consciousness Studies, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.


This paper presents a historical perspective on the development and application of quantum physics methodology beyond physics, especially in biology and in the area of consciousness studies. Quantum physics provides a conceptual framework for the structural aspects of biological systems and processes via quantum chemistry. In recent years individual biological phenomena such as photosynthesis and bird navigation have been experimentally and theoretically analyzed using quantum methods building conceptual foundations for quantum biology. Since consciousness is attributed to human (and possibly animal) mind, quantum underpinnings of cognitive processes are a logical extension. Several proposals, especially the Orch OR hypothesis, have been put forth in an effort to introduce a scientific basis to the theory of consciousness. At the center of these approaches are microtubules as the substrate on which conscious processes in terms of quantum coherence and entanglement can be built. Additionally, Quantum Metabolism, quantum processes in ion channels and quantum effects in sensory stimulation are discussed in this connection. We discuss the challenges and merits related to quantum consciousness approaches as well as their potential extensions.
PMID: 25012711 [PubMed - in process]
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5. Ecotoxicology. 2014 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Breeding near a landfill may influence blood metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, Zn) and metalloids (Se, As) in white stork (Ciconia ciconia) nestlings.

de la Casa-Resino I1, Hernández-Moreno D, Castellano A, Pérez-López M, Soler F.Author information:
1Toxicology Unit, Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 10003, Cáceres, Spain,


Cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, zinc and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from 59 free-ranging white stork nestlings from colonies located in three different environmental conditions in Western Spain. The reference colony was situated in "Llanos de Cáceres y Sierra de Fuentes", an Area of Special Interest for Bird Protection. A second colony was located close to (4.9 km) an urban landfill and a third one was close to both an intensive agricultural area and an urban landfill (1.5 km). Blood samples were diluted and elemental analysis was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. In all cases, the essential metals zinc and iron were found at the highest mean concentrations followed by lead > selenium > mercury > arsenic > cadmium. Regarding toxic metals, the highest concentrations were found for lead (ranging from 23.27 to 146.4 µg/L) although in all cases the concentrations were lower than those considered to cause subclinical effects. The metals levels detected in the chick's blood were not related to the previously reported levels in the soil next to the colonies, which may indicate that landfills are the main source of metals in white stork nestlings. The present data showed that metal levels in white stork chicks may be influenced by the use of landfills as feeding areas by the parents. However, more studies on the metal content in the feed of white stork and the influence of the distance to the landfill are necessary to establish the causality of these findings.
PMID: 25011922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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6. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Jul 10;7(1):318. [Epub ahead of print]

Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area.

Wallménius K, Barboutis C, Fransson T, Jaenson TG, Lindgren PE, Nyström F, Olsen B, Salaneck E, Nilsson K.



A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks.


Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced.


Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 +/- 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood.


Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination.
PMID: 25011617 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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7. J R Soc Interface. 2014 Sep 6;11(98). pii: 20140541. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2014.0541.

Three-dimensional flow and lift characteristics of a hovering ruby-throated hummingbird.

Song J1, Luo H2, Hedrick TL3.Author information:
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA.
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
3Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.


A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation is performed for a ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in hovering flight. Realistic wing kinematics are adopted in the numerical model by reconstructing the wing motion from high-speed imaging data of the bird. Lift history and the three-dimensional flow pattern around the wing in full stroke cycles are captured in the simulation. Significant asymmetry is observed for lift production within a stroke cycle. In particular, the downstroke generates about 2.5 times as much vertical force as the upstroke, a result that confirms the estimate based on the measurement of the circulation in a previous experimental study. Associated with lift production is the similar power imbalance between the two half strokes. Further analysis shows that in addition to the angle of attack, wing velocity and surface area, drag-based force and wing-wake interaction also contribute significantly to the lift asymmetry. Though the wing-wake interaction could be beneficial for lift enhancement, the isolated stroke simulation shows that this benefit is buried by other opposing effects, e.g. presence of downwash. The leading-edge vortex is stable during the downstroke but may shed during the upstroke. Finally, the full-body simulation result shows that the effects of wing-wing interaction and wing-body interaction are small.
© 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25008082 [PubMed - in process]
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8. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jul 9. [Epub ahead of print]

In vivo and in vitro addition of HIDROX®6% in poultry and its products.

King AJ, Griffin JK, Roslan F.


HIDROX®6%, a freeze dried powder from organic olive (Olea europaea) juice extract, contains 8.82% polyphenols and a minimum of 2.5% hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol), an effective free radical scavenger and the major antioxidant in the by-product. A study was conducted primarily (1) to determine the effectiveness of hydroxytyrosol in HIDROX®6%, administered in vivo, to retard lipid oxidation in postmortem tissue and further processed products and to (2) compare the in vitro antioxidative capacity of hydroxytyrosol in HIDROX®6% and myricetin, another free radical scavenger. Secondarily, it was important to assess the capacity of HIDROX®6% to enhance the growth of poultry. HIDROX®6% was administered ad libitum in water at 6 mg and 12 mg of HIDROX®6% per bird per d for six wk in a factorial design of 3 diets (control plus two treatment levels) x 2 blocks x 2 replications. Results (P < 0.05) indicated that HIDROX®6% did not retard lipid oxidation in Fresh, Heated or NaCl (1.0% w/w)/Heated/Stored meat as assessed by absorpbency values for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at 532 nm and 2,2- diphenylpicrylhydrazyl at 517 nm. HIDROX®6% and hydroxytyrosol are highly water soluble and may have been unavailable as an antioxidant in the tissue of broilers that did not consume water for four to six hours prior to processing. When added to processed thigh meat, 6% and 12% of HIDROX®6%, though not as effective as myricetin, reduced oxidation. Further assessment revealed that hydroxytyrosol in HIDROX®6% (0.025% to 0.05%), added at 1/38th the concentration of myricetin, was almost 50% as effective. Results (P < 0.05) showed no enhancement across treatments for feed consumption, BW or feed conversion; overall means for these measurements were 5.49 kg per bird, 3.32 kg per bird and 1.65 g feed per g live BW, respectively. Diagnostic examinations of two birds per pen over six weeks revealed no adverse effects due to consumption of HIDROX® 6%, a generally recognized as safe substance. Key words: olive extract, HIDROX®6%, hydroxytyrosol, antioxidant.
PMID: 25007306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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9. Oecologia. 2014 Jul 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Generalist birds govern the seed dispersal of a parasitic plant with strong recruitment constraints.

Mellado A1, Zamora R.Author information:
1Department of Ecology, Terrestrial Ecology Research Group, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071, Granada, Spain,


Mistletoes constitute instructive study cases with which to address the role of generalist consumers in the study of plant-animal interactions. Their ranges of safe sites for recruitment are among the most restricted of any plant; therefore, frugivores specializing in mistletoe have been considered almost indispensable for the seed dispersal of these parasitic plants. However, the absence of such specialists in numerous regions inhabited by many mistletoe species raises the question of whether unspecialized vectors may successfully disperse mistletoe seeds to narrowly defined safe sites. Using the European mistletoe Viscum album subsp. austriacum as a study case, we recorded a broad range of 11 bird species that disperse mistletoe seeds. For these species, we studied the mistletoe-visitation rate and feeding behavior to estimate the quantity component of dispersal effectiveness, and the post-foraging microhabitat use, seed handling, and recruitment probabilities of different microhabitats as a measure of the quality component of effectiveness. Both endozoochory and ectozoochory are valid dispersal mechanisms, as the seeds do not need to be ingested to germinate, increasing seed-dispersal versatility. Thrushes were the most effective dispersers, although they were rather inefficient, whereas small birds (both frugivores and non-frugivores) offered low-quantity but high-quality services for depositing seeds directly upon safe sites. As birds behave similarly on parasitized and non-parasitized hosts, and vectors have broad home ranges, reinfection within patches and the colonization of new patches are ensured by an ample assemblage of generalist birds. Thus, a parasitic plant requiring precision in seed dispersal can rely on unspecialized dispersers.
PMID: 25004870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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10. J Environ Biol. 2014 Jul;35(4):703-8.

Avifaunal occurrence and distribution of wetland birds in Sakhya Sagar and Madhav Lakes in Madhav National Park, Shivpuri, India.

Arya M, Rao RJ, Mishra AK.


The present study on wetland birds was carried out at Madhav National Park, Shivpuri, M.P., India. This Park comprises of two lakes namely Sakhya Sagar and Madhav Lakes, which support fascinating wildlife. These lakes are winter resorts for variety of migratory birds for shelter, breeding, nesting and provide a suitable habitat for several resident and local migratory wetland bird species. This paper assesses the occurrence of 73 wetland birds (18 families and 8 orders) with their distribution in different locations and habitats. The present study provides a comprehensive checklist of wetland birds of Sakhya Sagar and Madhav Lakes by covering 15 locations and 10 habitats utilized by migratory, resident migratory and resident wetland bird species during different seasons of year and at various sighting frequencies.
PMID: 25004756 [PubMed - in process]
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