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Monday, 2 June 2014

Bird research this week on PubMed: May 2014 Week 3

PubMed listing for 'bird' OR 'songbird' excluding references to influenza and flu - May 2014 Week 3



1. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2014 Apr;64(4):494-500.

Slightly acidic electrolyzed water for reducing airborne microorganisms in a layer breeding house.

Hao X, Cao W, Li B, Zhang Q, Wang C, Ge L.

Abstract

Reducing airborne microorganisms may potentially improve the environment in layer breeding houses. The effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW; pH 5.29-6.30) in reducing airborne microorganisms was investigated in a commercial layer house in northern China. The building had a tunnel-ventilation system, with an evaporative cooling. The experimental area was divided into five zones along the length of the house, with zone 1 nearest to an evaporative cooling pad and zone 5 nearest to the fans. The air temperature, relative humidity, dust concentration, and microbial population were measured at the sampling points in the five zones during the study period. The SAEW was sprayed by workers in the whole house. A six-stage air microbial sampler was used to measure airborne microbial population. Results showed that the population of airborne bacteria and fungi were sharply reduced by 0.71 x 10(5) and 2.82 x 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3) after 30 min exposure to SAEW, respectively. Compared with the benzalkonium chloride (BC) solution and povidone-iodine (PVP-I) solution treatments, the population reductions of airborne fungi treated by SAEW were significantly (P < 0.05) more, even though the three disinfectants can decrease both the airborne bacteria and fungi significantly (P < 0.05) 30 min after spraying. Implications: There are no effective methods for reducing airborne microbial levels in tunnel-ventilated layer breeding houses; additionally, there is limited information available on airborne microorganism distribution. This research investigated the spatial distribution of microbial population, and the effectiveness of spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water in reducing microbial levels. The research revealed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water spray was a potential method for reducing microbial presence in layer houses. The knowledge gained in this research about the microbial population variations in the building may assist producers in managing the bird housing environment and engineers in designing poultry houses.
PMID: 24843920 [PubMed - in process]
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2. Vet Microbiol. 2014 Apr 13. pii: S0378-1135(14)00201-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.04.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Campylobacter jejuni influences the expression of nutrient transporter genes in the intestine of chickens.

Awad WA1, Aschenbach JR2, Ghareeb K3, Khayal B4, Hess C4, Hess M4.Author information:
1Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, A-1210 Vienna, Austria; Department of Animal Hygiene, Poultry and Environment and Department of Animal Behaviour and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, 83523 Qena, Egypt. Electronic address: wageha.awad@vetmeduni.ac.at.
2Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Free University of Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany.
3Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria; Department of Animal Hygiene, Poultry and Environment and Department of Animal Behaviour and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, 83523 Qena, Egypt.
4Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, A-1210 Vienna, Austria.

Abstract

The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against pathogens. However, the interaction of Campylobacter with intestinal epithelial cells and its effects on the intestinal function of chickens are poorly studied. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the effects of C. jejuni oral infection on the mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in the intestine. Newly hatched specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were orally infected with C. jejuni (NCTC 12744; 1×108CFU/bird) at 14 days of age. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses at 14 days-post infection (dpi) revealed that the relative gene expression of the sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1) and the peptide transporter (PepT-1) was down-regulated (P<0.05) in all investigated segments (duodenum, jejunum and cecum) of Campylobacter-infected birds, while the facilitated glucose transporter (GLUT-2) was down-regulated (P<0.05) in jejunal and cecal tissues only. Furthermore, down-regulation (P<0.05) of the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) and the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT-3) was seen in the jejunum, and down-regulation (P<0.05) of the l-type amino acid transporter (y+LAT-2) was noticed in the duodenum of infected birds. The decreased expression of intestinal nutrient transporters coincided with a decrease (P<0.05) in body weight and body weight gain during a 2-week post infection period. For the first time, it can be concluded that nutrient transporter expression is compromised in the small and large intestine of Campylobacter-infected birds with negative consequences on growth performance. Furthermore, the down-regulation of mRNA expression of glucose and amino acid transporters may result in accumulation of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, which may favor C. jejuni replication and colonization.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 24834798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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3. Ecol Appl. 2014 Apr;24(3):445-56.

Assessing migratory connectivity for a long-distance migratory bird using multiple intrinsic markers.

Rushing CS, Ryder TB, Saracco JF, Marra PP.

Abstract

Patterns of migratory connectivity are a vital yet poorly understood component of the ecology and evolution of migratory birds. Our ability to accurately characterize patterns of migratory connectivity is often limited by the spatial resolution of the data, but recent advances in probabilistic assignment approaches have begun pairing stable isotopes with other sources of data (e.g., genetic and mark-recapture) to improve the accuracy and precision of inferences based on a single marker. Here, we combine stable isotopes and geographic variation in morphology (wing length) to probabilistically assign Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustilena) captured on the wintering grounds to breeding locations. In addition, we use known-origin samples to validate our model and assess potentially important impacts of isotopic and morphological covariates (age, sex, and breeding location). Our results show that despite relatively high levels of mixing across their breeding and nonbreeding ranges, moderate levels of migratory connectivity exist along an east-west gradient. In addition, combining stable isotopes with geographic variation in wing length improved the precision of breeding assignments by 10% and 37% compared to assignments based on isotopes alone or wing length alone, respectively. These results demonstrate that geographical variation in morphological traits can greatly improve estimates of migratory connectivity when combined with other intrinsic markers (e.g., stable isotopes or genetic data). The wealth of morphological data available from museum specimens across the world represents a tremendously valuable, but largely untapped, resource that is widely applicable for quantifying patterns of migratory connectivity.
PMID: 24834732 [PubMed - in process]
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